Saurabh Sharma

Faculty of Pharmacy, Kalinga University

Hulka and colleagues described Biomarkers as “cellular, biochemical, or molecular abnormalities that are identification in body fluids, cells and tissues” [1]. The concept has more recently been expanded to encompass biological traits that may be scientifically examined and assessed as a sign of healthy biological processes, pathological processes, or therapeutic responses. In actuality, biomarkers are instruments and technological advancements that help in comprehending the in early diagnosis, etiology, progression, help in quantification of probability of reversal of disease, or result of medical intervention [2]. Development of Biomarkers in pharmaceutical and medical technology have proved to a novel approach towards diagnosis of various diseases. A biomarker can be deceptively defined as specific quality that can be tested to reveal pathogenic activities, typical biological processes, or reactions to exposure or treatment [3]. Biomarkers been explored for its use in diagnostic factor still the basic terminology and its concept remains unclear in the field of research and clinical diagnosis. Further, it has been noted that comprehending chronic disease and nutrition is hampered by the intricacy of biomarkers [4].

Biomarkers should be distinguished from precise measurements of how a person feels, behaves, or survives for the purpose of clarity. A diagnostic biomarker help in identification of an unnatural cell growth or presence of an unnatural occurrence of cell that can be used as diagnostic parameter for identification of disease [5]. These biomarkers may be used to redefine the classification of the disease as well as to identify individuals who have it. For instance, the categorization of cancer detection is quickly shifting away from an organ-based classification system and towards a molecular and imaging-based classification [6]. One objective is to specify a validation procedure that ensures the biomarker can be assessed affordably, accurately, and repeatedly. Assays are frequently not verified, leading to false perceptions of the value of the biomarker [7]. Close attention must be made to the context of use whenever a diagnostic biomarker transitions from a generic application, such as expanding scientific principles, to a specific use in prospective research or clinical practise. In some clinical situations, a diagnostic biomarker may be helpful, but it may also be entirely useless in another. For instance, a biomarker needs to have a very low false-positive rate in low-prevalence diseases like pancreatic or ovarian cancer, where a new diagnosis can be emotionally upsetting or necessitate intrusive testing. While the higher false-positive rates in biomarkers can be manageable in screening for common disorders like hypertension or hyperlipidemia for which repeated assessments can be done with little danger, and the source of concern may be false-negative rates [8]. Use of biomarkers as a future perspective needs further research related to the field of diagnosis. 


  1. Hulka BS. Overview of biological markers. In: Biological markers in epidemiology (Hulka BS, Griffith JD, Wilcosky TC, eds), pp 3–15. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  2. Mayeux R. Biomarkers: potential uses and limitations. NeuroRx. 2004 Apr;1:182-8.
  3. Wang J, Chen J, Sen S. MicroRNA as biomarkers and diagnostics. Journal of cellular physiology. 2016 Jan;231(1):25-30.
  4. Gaggin HK, Januzzi Jr JL. Biomarkers and diagnostics in heart failure. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease. 2013 Dec 1;1832(12):2442-50.
  5. Zhang HD, Jiang LH, Sun DW, Hou JC, Ji ZL. CircRNA: a novel type of biomarker for cancer. Breast cancer. 2018 Jan;25:1-7.
  6. García-Gutiérrez MS, Navarrete F, Sala F, Gasparyan A, Austrich-Olivares A, Manzanares J. Biomarkers in psychiatry: concept, definition, types and relevance to the clinical reality. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2020 May 15;11:432.
  7. Califf RM. Biomarker definitions and their applications. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2018 Feb;243(3):213-21.
  8. McCarthy JF, Shugart LR. Biological markers of environmental contamination. InBiomarkers of environmental contamination 2018 Jan 18 (pp. 3-14). CRC Press.


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