After independence in 1947, The Indian government has recognized and considered education as one of the most important and foremost aspects for building a modern, educated and highly civilized progressive society based on high virtues. But to impart education to such a vast population having diverse cultural and demographic variations is always a demanding task. Determined to do the work at hand The government of India along with all the state governments has formed many subordinate and independent governing bodies for regulating the education system in India at all levels from pre primary to higher as well as technical education.
Listed here are some of the Governing Educational Bodies in India:
University Grants Commission (UGC)
UGC stands for University Grants Commission and the term itself is self-explanatory, i.e. a body which grants commission to educational institutes which deserve it the most. But that is only a part of its authority, its authority also comes from the fact that it establishes and maintains standards for higher education. There are some other roles of it as well, like handling all cases pertaining to the allocation of grants-in-aid from public funds to the Central Universities and other Universities and Institutions of higher learning. But the most important role of U.G.C. is to provide recognition to a university, without its approval no institute is supposed to run. According to Section 22(1), of the UGC Act, only universities that are established by an Act of Parliament or the State Legislature or an institution deemed to be a university or an institution especially empowered by an Act of the Parliament can award degrees. The degrees that are to be awarded by such universities should also be listed by the UGC under Section 22(3) of the UGC Act, 1956. Furthermore, the word ‘University’ can’t be used by any institution other than a university established by or under a Central or a State Act or a Provincial Act. If any institution doesn’t seek recognition from UGC, it would be a fake or illegal university or institute, thus the degree, certificate or diploma awarded by such institutes stands null and void.
Role of UGC:
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is a body that was created in 1945 for the systematic planning and organized development of the technical education system in the country. But in independent India, AICTE Act came into being from 28th March 1988 and the statutory All India Council for Technical Education came into existence on 12th May 1988.
AICTE is basically responsible for planning, formulation and maintenance of norms and standards, quality assurance through accreditation, funding in priority areas, monitoring and evaluation, maintaining parity of certification and awards and ensuring coordinated and integrated development and management of technical education throughout the country.
As technical education constitutes engineering education, pharmacy, hotel management and catering technology, Architecture and applied for arts and management courses and Town Planning AICTE is the only authority that recognizes institutes that offer diploma/ degree in engineering, postgraduate courses in engineering, master of computer application (MCA), Business Administration, Pharmacy courses, Hotel Management & Catering Technology Courses and postgraduate courses in Engineering, Technology, Architecture and Pharmacy. Besides, AICTE also approves institutes that can admit Persons of Indian Origin and Foreign Nationals. Those technical institutes that wish to enter into any kind of collaboration with various foreign universities are also required to get the approval from All India Council of Technical Education.
In order to promote research in technical education, AICTE also offers 50 National Doctoral Fellowship for a period of three years. However, the NDF is available only for students of some selected institutes.
Distant Education Bureau (DEB)
The Distant Education Bureau (DEB) is a bureau of the University Grants Commission (UGC) based in New Delhi, India, in charge of regulating distance education in India. It was established in 2012, replacing the Distance Education Council (DEC), an organisation that was responsible for open learning and distance education since 1985.
Distance Education is an umbrella term which describes all the teaching learning arrangements in which the learner and the teacher are separated by space and time. In fact it is a mode of delivering education and instruction to learners who are not physically present in a traditional setting of a classroom. Transaction of the curriculum is effected by means of specially prepared materials (self-study (learning) materials) which are delivered to the learners at their doorstep through various media such as print, digital media, Internet and World Wide Web, etc. Also a technological medium replaces the inter-personal communication of conventional classroom based education that takes place between the teacher and the learners.
The major objectives of Distance Education system are:
Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR)
Indian Council of Agricultural Research or ICAR is a body which coordinates guides and manages research and education in agriculture inclusive of horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences in India. ICAR is also an autonomous organisation which works under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research has its headquarters in Delhi. As an apex agriculture council of India it has a large number of associations which include institutes, agricultural universities, etc under its umbrella. These associations assist ICAR in fulfilling its objectives. The sheer large number of institutes and universities together make it one of the largest national agricultural systems in the world.
Some of the ICAR Activities:
National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
National Council for Teacher Education or NCTE India is a statutory body formed to overlook standards, procedures and processes in the Indian education system. Government of India established it in 1973 as an advisory body for the Central and State Governments, on matters related to teacher education. It had its Secretariat in the Department of Teacher Education of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). It became a statutory body through the National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993 (No. 73 of 1993) on the 17th August, 1995. Before the NCTE gained its new status, there was no organisation which could ensure maintenance of standards in teacher education and preventing proliferation of substandard teacher education institutions.
The main objective of the NCTE is to achieve planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system throughout the country, the regulation and proper maintenance of Norms and Standards in the teacher education system and for matters connected therewith. The mandate given to the NCTE is very broad and covers the whole gamut of teacher education programmes including research and training of persons for equipping them to teach at pre-primary, primary, secondary and senior secondary stages in schools, and non-formal education, part-time education, adult education and distance (correspondence) education courses. NCTE has four Regional Committees which look after its statutory responsibilities.
It is compulsory to seek recognition from NCTE for starting a teacher training programme. If not recognised, the degree in teacher education shall not be considered as a valid degree for the purpose of employment under the Central Govt., any State Govt. or University, or in any school, college or other educational body aided by the Central Govt. or any State Govt.
National Board of Accreditation (NBA)
The NBA was established by the AICTE in 1994 with the purpose of evaluating technical programs. It became an autonomous accreditation body in January 2010, with a mission to ensure that technical and professional institutions, including those in the engineering, technology, architecture, pharmacy, and hospitality fields are providing relevant and quality education.
The accreditation process starts with a Self-Assessment Report (SAR) which is to be filled out by the institution for the programs that are applying for accreditation.
The SAR covers the following criteria:
Once the SAR is completed, the NBA constructs a team of one chairperson and two evaluators to evaluate the program. The team prepares a pre-visit report based on their observations of the SAR. A three-day visit to the program is set-up for the evaluators to note the strengths, weaknesses, concerns, and deficiencies of the program based off of the criteria.
The NBA assigns the institution one of three possible statuses for accreditation: Accredited, Provisionally Accredited, or Not Accredited. The institute receives a status of Accredited for five years if it gets a minimum of 750 points and a minimum of 60 per cent in each of the nine criteria.
Bar Council of India (BCI)
Bar Council of India is statutory or a legal body created by the parliament for regulating and representing the Indian Bar i.e. the law practices and the legal profession in India. The Bar Council of India was established by Parliament under the Advocates Act, 1961. Bar Council of India (BCI) performs various activities related to law. These functions cover everything that is of legal nature, be it legal education, law profession, law bodies and any other matter. In that sense it performs regulatory functions by prescribing standards of professional conduct and etiquette. It exercises disciplinary jurisdiction over the practices and professions related to law. In education, it sets standards for legal education and grants recognition to Universities whose degree in law will serve as qualification for enrolment as an advocate. It also performs certain representative functions by protecting the rights, privileges and interests of advocates through the creation of funds for providing financial assistance to organise welfare schemes for them.
Functions of Bar Council of India, Delhi has regulatory and representative mandate towards the legal profession and legal education in India. These are:
Towards this effect it can:
Medical Council of India (MCI)
The Medical Council of India (MCI) was set up by the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, amended in 1993. The council is empowered to prescribe minimum standards for medical education required for granting recognized medical qualifications by universities or medical institutions in India.
The Council is empowered to make regulations relating to:
The Council is also responsible to give its recommendations to the Central Government for establishing new medical colleges, opening of new or higher courses of study and increase in admission capacity in any courses of study or training.
Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
The Pharmacy Council of India (PCI), also known as Central council, was constituted under section 3 of the Pharmacy Act, 1948. The PCI controls pharmacy education and profession in India up to graduate level. The Council prescribes the minimum standard of education for qualification as pharmacist.
The Council prescribes:
Indian Nursing Council (INC)
The Indian Nursing Council is a statutory body constituted under the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947. The Council is responsible for regulation and maintenance of a uniform standard of training for Nurses, Midwives, Auxiliary Nurse-Midwives and Health Visitors.
Amongst other things, the Council is empowered to make regulations for:
Dentist Council of India (DCI)
Dental Council of India is a Statutory Body incorporated under an Act of Parliament viz. The Dentists Act, 1948 (XVI of 1948) to regulate the Dental Education and the profession of Dentistry throughout India and it is financed by the Govt. of India in the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (Department of Health) through Grant-in-aid.
DCI, a statutory body has representatives of the Central Government, State Government, Universities, Dental Colleges, Medical Council of India and the Private Practitioners of Dentistry. It was constituted with a view to regulating the dental education, dental profession and dental ethics.
Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH)
The Central Council of Homoeopathy was established under the Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973. The Council prescribes and recognizes all homeopathic medicine qualifications. Any university or medical institutions that desires to grant a medical qualification in homeopathy is required to apply to the Council.
The Council is responsible for constitution and maintenance of a Central Register of Homoeopathy and for matters connected therewith.
All universities and Board of medical institutions in India are required to furnish all information regarding courses of study and examination. The Council is empowered to appoint inspectors at examinations and visitors to examine facilities.
Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM)
The Central Council of Indian Medicine is the statutory body constituted under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970. This Council prescribes minimum standards of education in Indian Systems of Medicine viz. Ayurved, Siddha, Unani Tibb. The Council is responsible to maintain a Central Register on Indian Medicine and prescribes Standards of Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Code of Ethics to be observed by the practitioners. The Council is empowered to appoint medical inspectors to observe the conduct of examinations, and visitors to inspect facilities in colleges, hospitals and other institutions imparting instruction in Indian medicine.
The Council is responsible to frame regulations with respect to:
National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC)
The National Assessment and Accreditation Council acronym as NAAC is a brain child of UGC that was established in 1992 to address the issue of deterioration in the quality of higher education in the country. Although established in 1992 it was opened in 1994 with its headquarters at Bangalore as an autonomous national accreditation body. An outcome of National Policy in Education (1986) NAAC is responsible to assess and accredit institutions of higher education in the country with special emphasis on upholding the quality of higher education in India Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA). The main responsibility of NAAC is To make quality the defining element of higher education in India through a combination of self and external quality evaluation, promotion and sustenance initiatives.
For accomplishing its task in an effective manner the NAAC primarily assesses the quality of institutions of higher education that volunteer for the process, through an internationally accepted methodology.
NAAC has 7 Point on which it’s grading is done. These are:
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
The National Council of Educational Research and Training is an autonomous organisation of the Government of India that was established on 1 September 1961 as a literary, scientific and charitable Society under the Societies’ Registration Act. Its headquarters are located in New Delhi.
NCERT is the apex body for curriculum related matters for school education in India. It assists and advises the Central and State Governments on academic matters related to school education. It also provides support and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies.
The major objectives of NCERT and its constituent units are to:
In addition to research, development, training, extension, publication and dissemination activities, NCERT is an implementation agency for bilateral cultural exchange programmes with other countries in the field of school education.
The NCERT also interacts and works in collaboration with the international organisations, visiting foreign delegations and offers various training facilities to educational personnel from developing countries.
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
CBSE is another main governing body of the education system in India. It comes under the purview of the Central Government. It is a Board of Education for public and private schools. The board conducts final examinations every spring for All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) for Class 10 and 12. The board also annually conducts the AIEEE exam for admission to undergraduate courses in engineering and architecture in numerous colleges of India.
Kalinga Plus is an initiative by Kalinga University, Raipur. The main objective of this to disseminate knowledge and guide students & working professionals.
This platform will guide pre – post university level students.
Pre University Level – IX –XII grade students when they decide streams and choose their career
Post University level – when A student joins corporate & needs to handle the workplace challenges effectively.
We are hopeful that you will find lot of knowledgeable & interesting information here.