Author – Ms. Neelam Ahirwar

Assistant Professor Department of Forensic Science

Kalinga University Naya Raipur

Email –

With the growing advancement and innovation in technology, now fingerprint is identified by majority of population. Introduction of Fingerprint sensors in smartphones as a security feature popularized the originality and uniqueness of fingerprint among all age group of people. Starting from illiterate to kids below 5 years to elderly people, all are aware that fingerprint are unique to individual and can be used as a means of personal identification.

Fingerprint is an impression left on a surface whenever the friction ridges present on palm side of hands comes in contact with any surface. The presence of sweat glands and other contaminants makes up the matrix which gets deposited on the surface whenever finger tips come in contact with any substrate. This deposition is invisible in nature. It cannot be viewed with naked eyes unless developed with any LFPD (Latent Fingerprint Development) techniques.

On majority of crime scenes, fingerprints are one of the most frequently found evidence. Perspiration in hands and other places tends to increase while committing any offence due to natural tendency of nervousness and anxiety in human beings.

Fingerprint science also known as Dermatoglyphics defines and include the study of patterns and details made up of friction ridges present on palm side of hands which can aid in criminal and victim identification.

Dermatoglyphics stands on 3 basic principles:

1) Individuality

2) Immutability

3) Classifiable

1st principle states that fingerprints are unique in nature. It cannot be duplicated anywhere in world. No two impressions can be exactly alike unless produced from same finger.

2nd principle states about the permanency of fingerprints. It is proven fact that fingerprints do not change with the course of time. From the development of friction ridges in fetus of 6 month till death, fingerprints do not change except expansion in size.

3rd principle states that fingerprints have certain common features (pattern) in them which are Classifiable in nature. It is common among population like loop is common type of pattern common among 60-65% of population. These 3 principles make up the foundation of subject.

The most common type of print found on crime scene is latent prints. Such prints need development methods to get visibility. After development, the prints are preserved with the help of photographs and tape lifting methods for further analysis. After collection of fingerprints from crime scene, suspect’s prints are to be recorded for the purpose of comparison. Fingerprint Expert after obtaining chance and standard samples from crime scene and suspects respectively will perform comparison methods by analysing the data (features prints).

The result of fingerprint analysis can reach one of the three conclusions: Identification, Inconclusive and Exclusion. If the suspected print matches with standards with high matching score, the result is positive identification. If the suspected sample doesn’t match with given standards the score generated will be low or negative, thus conclude negative matching i.e. exclusion. And if due to lack in sufficiency of samples, the scores cannot be generated then the result declared is inconclusive.



Reference – Fingerprint Identification; Surinder nath

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