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Internet of Nano Things

Sushree Sasmita Dash

Assistant Professor, CS & IT, Kalinga University, Raipur


1.      Introduction:

Everybody’s everyday life has altered dramatically as a result of the Internet of Things (IoT) [1]. The Internet, a highly interconnected worldwide network, aims to link digital and analog equipment. In the recent past, several IoT applications have been developed and deployed [2]. By linking various devices and items from many sectors, IoT broadens the scope of the internet. An innovative and contemporary component of the IoT is the Internet of nano things (IoNT). The IoNT refers to the integration of nanoscale devices, sensors, and systems into the IoT ecosystem. While the IoT focuses on connecting everyday objects and devices to the internet, the IoNT extends this connectivity to the nanoscale level.

Nanotechnology deals with materials and structures on a nanometer scale, typically ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers. These nanoscale devices, often called nanomachines or nanosensors, possess unique properties due to their small size and can be used for various applications such as sensing, actuation, communication, and computation. In the context of the IoNT, these nanoscale devices are designed to collect data, communicate with each other and larger devices, and provide insights into the physical world at a very detailed level. They can be embedded in objects, organisms, or even the human body to monitor and control different parameters.

2.      Techniques for IoNT Architecture:

The Internet of Nanoscale Things (IoNT) has two subfields: the Multimedia Internet of Nanoscale Things (IoMNT) and the Internet of Nanoscale Bio-Things (IoBNT). Both tasks entail connecting nanodevices to the world’s existing communication networks. The designs of the IoNT network are influenced by the application domain and its distinctive characteristics. Nano nodes, nano routers, nano-micro interface devices (gateway), and internet portals are the four most crucial fundamental elements in the creation of the IoNT network [2].  


The properties of the nanomaterials used in the nanodevices, such as graphene nanoribbons (GNR) or carbon nanotubes (CNT), have a considerable impact on IoNT design issues. Gates, which are Wi-Fi access points, may locate a patient’s location or the location of their smartphone [3]. Figure 3 depicts the IoNT architecture, which combines body area networks and intrabody nano communication networks. In this system, the nanodevices are grouped in groups, and each group has a group boss who oversees data management and transmits data to the nano router along a dynamic path that varies based on the environment and the available resources. The nanodevices are then connected via networks that are physically separated from one another [4].

Fig.1 The overall IoNT architecture combines body area networks and intrabody nano communication networks. Through the implementation of numerous medical applications, storage, and processing functions, as well as in other applications like a factory work monitoring system, this architecture provides all communication features [5].

1.      IoNT Applications:

Some potential applications of the Internet of Nano things include:

1)      Healthcare: Nanosensors can be used for real-time monitoring of vital signs, drug delivery, and early disease detection at the cellular level.

2)      Environmental Monitoring: Nanosensors can help monitor pollution levels, detect contaminants in water or air, and provide precise data on environmental conditions.

3)      Smart Agriculture: Nanodevices can monitor soil conditions, plant health, and pest infestations, enabling optimized crop management.

4)      Industrial Applications: IoNT can be used for precise monitoring of manufacturing processes, equipment condition monitoring, and quality control.

5)      Energy Management: Nanosensors can be employed to monitor and optimize energy consumption in buildings, enabling more efficient use of resources.

6)      Smart Cities: The IoNT can contribute to intelligent urban infrastructure by providing real-time data on traffic conditions, waste management, and resource allocation.

2.      Conclusions:

The current advancement of communication devices and wireless network technology is advancing the new era of the Internet and telecommunications. As one of the many “things” that make up our world, every single physical object on the planet, including communication equipment, will be governed by wireless networks and connected to the Internet. The IoNT paradigm will take the Internet of Things to the next level by concentrating on nanodevices composed of nanomaterials and other nanoscale components. These nanodevices will communicate with a microdevice, which will communicate with the Internet. However, it’s worth noting that the IoNT is still an emerging field and practical implementation and scalability pose significant challenges. Issues such as power supply, communication protocols, data processing, and security need to be addressed to fully realize the potential of IoNT applications. Overall, the IoNT represents an exciting frontier in the development of interconnected systems, where the fusion of nanotechnology and IoT has the potential to revolutionize various industries and enable new applications that were previously unimaginable.


[1] Cruz Alvarado, M. A., & Bazán, P. (2019). Understanding the Internet of Nano Things: overview, trends, and challenges. E-Ciencias de la Información, 9(1), 152-182.

[2] Pramanik, P. K. D., Solanki, A., Debnath, A., Nayyar, A., El-Sappagh, S., & Kwak, K. S. (2020). Advancing Modern Healthcare With Nanotechnology, Nanobiosensors, and Internet of Nano Things: Taxonomies, Applications, Architecture, and Challenges. IEEE Access, 8, 65230-65266.

[3] Pramanik, P. K. D., Solanki, A., Debnath, A., Nayyar, A., El-Sappagh, S., & Kwak, K. S. (2020). Advancing Modern Healthcare With Nanotechnology, Nanobiosensors, and Internet of Nano Things: Taxonomies, Applications, Architecture, and Challenges. IEEE Access, 8, 65230-65266.

[4] Balghusoon, A. O., & Mahfoudh, S. (2020). Routing Protocols for Wireless Nanosensor Networks and Internet of Nano Things: A Comprehensive Survey. IEEE Access, 8, 200724-200748

[5] Naser, H. A., Lateef, A. T., Bida, F. A., & Zorah, M. (2021). Systematic Review of Internet of Nano Things (IoNT) Technology: Taxonomy, Architecture, Open Challenges, Motivation and Recommendations. Iraqi Journal of Nanotechnology, (2), 7-19.


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