Tumour tissues contain various cell types, i.e., cancer cells, fibroblasts, stromal cells, immunecells, vascular cells, etc. The tissues in the surroundings of tumour act as sources of cytokines,growth factors which help in growth or progression of tumour cells. This interaction betweentumour-stromal (surrounding tissues) plays a major role in tumour invasion, metastasis, andangiogenesis.Thus, to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of anti-cancer drug in proper manner, weneed exact 3D-tissue model or in-vitro replica of tumour niche. In last decades, Cancerresearch has been impressively helped by the use of 3D culture systems. But previouslyavailable 3D culture models, failed to create micro-environment of in-vivo tumour environment.Organ-on-chip is a new emerging technique which opens up the possibilities of recreating andmaintaining microenvironment of tumour tissue. Organ-on-chip have ability to combinedifferent cells and tissues and for recreating microenvironment, mimicking human organs andfunctions and thus provide ideal environment to study various aspects of diseases in molecularand cellular level. Alveolar-capillary interface and blood-brain barriers can also be recreated toinvestigate therapeutics, drug efficiency, toxicity and drug delivery.It also allows real time observation and complex interconnections of biochemical andphysiological responses. Currently microfluidic systems have been used to study cancerbiology in various aspects, comparing cell migration, metastasis, effects of anticancer drugs, anticancer therapy, nanomedicine transportation in tumour. As tumour-on-chip device uses human tissues and cells, this increases the accuracy of anticancer drugs and treatmentresponses. In cancer researches including the study of tumour physiology, screening of medicines, personalized treatment, aptness of tumour-on-chip is increasing before testing it in animal models. The introduction of 3D-bioprinting technology has made things easier for the fabrication compound and functional tumour-on-chip device. This possible combination of microfluidics and tissue engineering enables more effective and refined tumour-on-chip device which has also become cost effective, less time consuming and ethically suitable as compared to animal models. Worldwide, dramatically this tool has improved preclinical drug testing through its accuracy and efficiency of mimicking human organs.
Keywords: microenvironment, cancer cells, anticancer, anticancer drug, organ chip
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