Bacteria, a unicellular microorganism, are longstanding as life itself on earth. Their adaptation, identity, cellular capability, and ecological distribution are enormously diversified. Astonishingly, despite their existence as unicellular and independent life, they have always been pretty cooperative in nature. These sorts of cooperation and competition are found among them irrespective of their individuality. So, by its nature, bacteria start talking/whispering among themselves, whether in a competitive or cooperative mood. This mode of communication between two cells that permits them to share information regarding the cell’s density and their gene expression profile is known as Quorum Sensing. Gram Positive, as well as gram-negative bacteria regulate a variation in physiological conditions using quorum sensing. It mainly pacts on controlling the gene expression concerning cell density. QS encompasses the production as well as the detection of signals which are extracellular, especially called autoinducers. Recent research studies showed that intra and inter-species cell.
cell communication is being modulated by quorum sensing. HSL acylated homo serine lactone, an autoinducer, is secreted by the bacteria in the external environment. An increase in cell density /population is directly proportional to autoinducer production. But there lies a saturation point, too; on reaching a threshold level, a signal transduction cascade gets triggered, resulting in luciferase production (commonly produced by firefly to glow). A Lux I/Lux R system regulates their communication phenomenon. Bacteria regulate these gene expressions in response to their cell density. It’s also being noted that they do delay the production of virulence factors regulated by quorum sensing such that the host does not get notified and be alert about its pathogenicity. Researches even show that quorum sensing controls different functions and mechanisms that the unicellular microorganism uses for cell number counting and modulating gene expression in response to changes in population concerning cell density. As a result, they continue to commute in an inter or intra-species way, enabling them to talk freely amid each other.
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