Human corona viruses belong to the genus Nidovirus, Family Coronaviridae, Subfamily Coronavirinae and Alfacoronavirus or Betacoronavirus. They usually cause epilepsy or gastrointestinal illness. The rapid emergence of corona virus associated with acute acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003–2004 has been noted in many ways, including neurologic manifestations (Weiss and Leibovitz , 2011). Coronavirus virions are spherical, 120–160 nm in diameter, and the outer envelope has 20-nm-long club-shaped projections, collectively resembling a crown or solar corona. The ssRNA + gene is located in a helical nucleocapsid with a diameter of 9–11 nm. At 27-32 kb, corovirus genes are the largest of RNA viruses. They are non-segmented, 5-capped and 3 dimensionally polyadenylated Coronaviruses attach to cell surface receptors and enter the cell at the plasma membrane or after endocytosis (Perlman and Netland, 2009). Replication occurs in the cytoplasm. After uncoating, gene replication occurs on double-membrane vesicles originating from the endoplasmic reticulum. Translated virus-specific RdRp, which transcribes viral genomic RNA to produce a full-length antigenome. A group of new positive-strand RNA and subgenomic mRNA is transcribed from the antigenome template. Newly synthesized genomic RNA is included in virions that assemble on membranes between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi. Mature virions develop by exocytosis after vesicular transport to the cell membrane Corona viruses are spread by respiratory aerosols and usually produce mild upper respiratory infections (Weiss and Leibowitz, 2011). They are referred to as etiologic agents of multiple sclerosis.


Cold or flu-like symptoms usually begin two to four days after infection with the Coronavirus, and are usually mild. However, symptoms vary from person to person, and some forms of the virus may be fatal.

Symptoms include:

  • Sneezing
  • Runny nose
  • fatigue
  • Cough
  • In rare cases, fever
  • Sore throat
  • Exacerbation of asthma

Human corona virus can’t be developed in the research center effectively, in contrast to the nasal infection, which is another reason for the basic virus. This makes it hard to check the effect of the Corona infection on national economies and general wellbeing.

There is no cure, so treatments include self-care and over-the-counter (OTC) medications:

  • Rest and avoid excessive stress.
  • Drink enough water.
  • Avoid smoking and smoking areas.
  • Take acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen to relieve pain and fever.
  • Use a clean moisturizer or a cold mist evaporator.

The responsible virus can be diagnosed by taking a sample of respiratory fluids, such as mucus from the nose or blood.


Different types of human coronavirus vary in the severity of illness they cause and how far they can spread. There are currently seven recognized types of coronavirus that can infect humans. Common types include:

  • 229E (Corona alpha virus)
  • NL63 (Corona alpha virus)
  • OC43 (Corona Experimental Virus)
  • HKU1 (beta corona virus)

The most dangerous types are MERS-CoV, which causes Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), and the corona virus responsible for SARS. In 2019, a dangerous new variety started to spread, but it still doesn’t have an official name. Health authorities are currently referring to the novel Coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCov).


In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began monitoring the spread of the new coronavirus virus. Authorities first identified the virus in Wuhan, China. They named it the 2019 Corona Virus Novel (2019-nCov).

More than 1,000 people in China are infected with the virus. Health officials have identified several people with 2019-nCov around the world, including some individuals in the United States. On January 31st, 2020, the U.S. The virus moved from one person to another. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared a 2019-nCov-related public health emergency.

Since then, 2019-nCov has begun to disrupt 24 other countries. In the United Kingdom, on February 10, 2020, a hospital in Brighton was temporarily closed after a staff member was infected with the virus. At the time of writing, they are one of eight people infected with the virus.

The first few animal and seafood markets are related to 2019-nCov. Initially it was said that animals transmit the virus to humans. However, those with the most recent diagnoses have no connection or are exposed to the market, claiming humans can spread the virus to each other.

Information about rare viruses nowadays. In the past, respiratory conditions originating from coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS have spread through close contact.

However, while some viruses are highly infectious, how quickly they spread is not clear with the corona virus. Symptoms vary for someone with the 2019-nCov infection. It may produce little or no symptoms. However, it can also cause serious illness and can be dangerous. Common symptoms include:

  • Flu
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Cough

It can take 2-14 days for somebody to see the indications after the contamination. No antibody is presently accessible for 2019-nCov. In any case, researchers have recreated the infection. This will permit early recognition and treatment of infection tainted individuals, yet not for the individuals who don’t


Asst. Professor


Kalinga University, Naya Raipur



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