It would be wise to pre-plan the future land usage after post-mining operation, in previously existing or alternative land use, e.g. for residential use, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat, crop land, etc. Generally, it would be desirable to restore the land by reclamation in such a manner that the reclaimed land can be fruitfully used to fulfil the objectives of use and its feasibility; provision of necessary public facilities; economy; acceptance standards for adequate land stability; drainage; vegetative coverage; hazards to public health and safety; adverse effects on fish, wildlife, endangered plants; intensity of change of pre-mining land and land to be used for apiculture and wildlife habitat, forest land, hay land, etc. Similarly, it is very important that the top soil is saved for later use in vegetation. It is advisable that best soil materials are included in the restoration process, to develop a reconstructed final land surface with drainage system. Of course, special attention must be paid for preservation of the flora and fauna of the top soil. Where top soil is segregated, separate management of the mining induced wastelands deserve special attention. Top soil that has the desired texture contains nutrients for vegetation, has seeds of local plants and spores of micro-organisms, except in some of the opencast mines located in Western India, and is either put on top of the existing overburdened dump or stored for future utilization. The majority of opencast mines follow excavation of top soil and overburden rock together, causing mixing of top soil and blasted rock. Hence, they cannot be utilized during the reclamation process. To segregate top soil from a separate soil, through a segregate soil bench, a minimum of 100mm thick soil cover is a must and also it must be stone and rubble-free. Otherwise, a scraper cannot be used therein. Since overburdened dumps are deficient in plant nutrition and also their moisture retention capacity is very low, only hardy species can grow there and survive. Although it is sometimes possible to reclaim tips and excavations in one operation, by moving the former into the latter, more frequently the tip has to be reclaimed in situ. Many factors require consideration e.g. the relationship between reguarding and revegetation considerations. Reguarding is undertaken to lower the high of the tip and decrease slope angles. Many shallow pits in stratified areas can be worked to a rolling reclamation pattern. Provided topsoil is conserved, it can quickly be replaced behind the face, and agriculture reestablished, with or without grading up to undisturbed land according to the depth of excavation. Alternatively, if an appropriate fill is available, the pit can be progressively backfilled and restored.
Mr Raj Ashish
Department of Mining
Kalinga University,Naya Raipur

Like this article?

Share on Facebook
Share on Twitter
Share on Linkdin
Share on Pinterest

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Kalinga Plus is an initiative by Kalinga University, Raipur. The main objective of this to disseminate knowledge and guide students & working professionals.
This platform will guide pre – post university level students.
Pre University Level – IX –XII grade students when they decide streams and choose their career
Post University level – when A student joins corporate & needs to handle the workplace challenges effectively.
We are hopeful that you will find lot of knowledgeable & interesting information here.
Happy surfing!!

  • Free Counseling!