# School Projects

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## SCHOOL PROJECTS

Young minds are the sharpest minds. They learn quickly and act quicker. The education system focuses on books and learning; along with this the young minds are doing innovative projects and use their learning’s in a practical way.

Here are a few interesting projects for students which are worth knowing:

Disclaimer and Safety Precautions:

Warning is hereby given that not all Project Ideas are appropriate for all individuals or in all circumstances. Implementation of any Project Idea should be undertaken only in appropriate settings and with appropriate parental or other supervision.

### SCIENCE

Why Does Honey Crystallize?

Problem: What makes honey crystallize? What factors change the speed at which honey crystallizes?

Materials:

• 5 small, identical food jars with lids
• Masking tape to act as labels
• Cotton ball
• Ice-cream stick
• Honey (If possible, get natural honey that’s from a local farm. Some honey is mixed with other substances, and this could change the results of your experiment)
• Measuring spoons
• Canola oil
• Water
• Freezer
• Timer
• Toothpick
• Digital thermometer

Procedure:

• Add a small amount of cold water to each container. Container #1 gets one teaspoon of water, container #2 gets 2 teaspoons, container #3 has 3 teaspoons, and container #4 has 4 teaspoons. The fifth container will have only honey.
• Add 1 tablespoon of honey to each of the containers. This is the tricky part, since honey doesn’t like to flow easily off a spoon! Oil your spoon using the cotton ball by dipping the ball in the oil and spreading it lightly over the spoon. Next, fill the spoon with honey. Finally, push the honey off the spoon into the container. Use the Popsicle stick if you need to scrape it off the spoon so that you don’t feel tempted to eat the experiment!
• Use the Ice-cream stick to gently mix the honey and the water together in each jar.
• Create a hypothesis, your best guess about what is going to happen. When you put your containers in the freezer, which one do you think will crystallize the fastest? Why?
• Create a chart to track your findings. The chart will have five rows. On the left side of each row, place the jar numbers. Begin with jar 1 at the top and go down to jar 5 at the bottom. On the top of the chart, place times. The first time is 2 minutes; the second is 4 minutes, and so on. You will place an X under the time when you first see crystals forming. On the side of the chart, create an area for notes. This is where you will note the temperature at which each jar of honey started to crystallize.
 2 min 4 min 6 min 8 min 10 min 12 min 14 min Jar 1 Jar 2 Jar 3 Jar 4 Jar 5
• Put all of the jars into the freezer, and set a timer. After 2 minutes, look at the jars and check them for signs of crystallization. The honey may look rough or cloudy. Watch the jars but try not to handle them, since the heat from your hands could change the way the honey crystallizes.
• Continue to look at the jars every 2 minutes. If you see crystals forming, place the thermometer into the honey and record the temperature on your chart.

Results: The honey without water will crystallize first.

Why? When we think of crystals, we usually think of precious jewels—but the truth is that many things crystallize. In fact, salt and sugar are both crystals.

When you stir salt into water, it looks like it disappears—but in reality, it’s still there; it’s just dissolved into the water. Let that water dry out, and salt crystals will be left behind. Like salty water, honey is a solution, which means that bits of sugar are spread throughout a liquid. When honey crystallizes, the honey molecules spread throughout the liquid come together to form solid crystals, and the more dissolved bits of a solute there are in a solution, the faster that solution will crystallize as it cools down. Mixing more water into a solution makes it crystallize more slowly.

Heat also changes how quickly crystals form. Every solution has a temperature at which the solid is spread throughout the liquid. For honey, this is around room temperature.

Honey is made up of a lot more than just sugar and water! Raw honey contains many different nutrients and may even contain bits of pollen. Some honey becomes the nectar bees gather from specific flowers, such as clover, while other honey is a mixture of different nectar sources. Try this experiment again, using honey from the nectar of different flowers. Do the flowers make a difference when it comes to honey crystallization? Why? Do some flowers have sweeter nectar than others?

Bounciness and Deflection

Project Time Frame: 4-6 weeks

Objective: This project deals with deflection and elasticity.

The goals of this project are:

• To demonstrate the property of bouncing in a fresh new way.
• To experiment with materials that bounce.
• To discuss ways of measuring bounciness.
• Computer with internet access
• Colour printer
• Digital camera
• Typical office/craft/hobby supplies (such as paper, pens & poster-board, glue, etc.)
• A few balls of different sizes and composition

All materials can be found in your home, at local stores, or on online retail portals.

Introduction: Elastic material returns to its original shape when bent, squeezed or stretched. How fast it does this is a measure of its elasticity. But elasticity is just one way to measure “bounciness.” Another is degree of deflection, which means how far (or fast) a ball will travel after coming in contact with a flat surface. This project involves experiments in deflection.

Research Questions:

• What causes a ball to bounce?
• Are some materials “bouncier” than others? If so, which ones?
• How do the size and weight of an object affect its ability to bounce?

Terms and Concepts to Start Background Research:

• Deflection
• Elasticity
• Research related materials (see bibliography below)
• Search and print out images of things that bounce.
• Collect a few samples of different types of balls.
• Carefully record the weight of each ball, and the materials from which it is made.
• To calculate bounce rates, drop each ball from the same height onto a hard flat surface, and count the number of times it bounces in ten seconds.
• If possible, also measure heights reached on each successive bounce. One way to do this is by filming the bouncing balls against a background that is marked for measurement. Tape wooden yardsticks to the wall, for instance, and film it with a smart-phone.
• If desired, try a similar experiment using a different type of flat surface.
• Carefully record all observations.
• Analyze data.
• Interpret results in a detailed report.
• Include bouncing balls in your science fair display.
• Show interesting photos taken throughout the course of the project.

Bibliography

Wiki topics: “Deflection” and “Elasticity”

Internet searches of your own choosing: Search for any of the terms listed above (or make up your own phrases to search), and click on any results that interest you. Have fun surfing and researching on the net!

Perpetual Motion Machine

Project Time Frame: 4-6 weeks

Objective: This project attempts to build a perpetual motion machine.

The goals of this project are:

·        To attempt to invent a perpetual motion device.

·        To explain why such devices don’t really work.

Materials and Equipment:

·        Computer with Internet access

·        Colour printer

·        Digital camera

·        Typical office/hobby/hardware/craft supplies (paper, poster board, glue, wood, etc.)

·        All materials can be found in your home, at local stores, or on online retail portals

Introduction: Perpetual motion refers to the impossible concept of never-ending motion. Universal laws insist that energy cannot be created from nothing, nor can it be destroyed, but can only be transformed. You only get as much “work” from a device as the energy you put into it. In spite of all this, inventors throughout human history have made various attempts (some more kooky than others), at building perpetual motion devices. In this project you can build your own (apparent) perpetual motion device, only to have to explain to your disappointed listeners why it cannot work forever.

Research Questions:

·        What have been some interesting perpetual motion inventions?

·        Why have all these attempts ultimately failed?

Terms and Concepts to Start Background Research:

·        Laws of Thermodynamics

·        Perpetual motion

Experimental Procedure:

·        Read overview of relevant topics (see bibliography below and terms listed above)

·        Address all of the above terms and research questions.

·        Search and print out interesting images of so-called perpetual motion machines.

·        Also, take your own photographs throughout the course of the experiment.

·        Sketch your ideas before beginning to build you device.

·        Find or build a small wooden box, no more than 3 inches on each side.

·        Securely glue magnets to all 4 sides, and one to the bottom, so all the polarities match.

·        Place a clear plastic lid on the top, so you can see into the box (or make it a taller box, so a lid won’t be necessary).

·        Cover one pole of a small magnet with clay, or find some other way to block the magnetism of that one side. The exposed side should be the side that is repelled by the magnets attached inside the box.

·        Drop the magnet into the box. If properly constructed, the magnet will jump around, repelled by all the other magnets. If it jumps upward, gravity will bring it down.

·        Carefully record all observations.

·        Analyze your data. Explain why your device can’t stay in motion forever.

·        Interpret your findings in a detailed report.

·        Include interesting photos, diagrams and models in your science fair display.

Bibliography

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perpetual_motion (Wiki topic: Perpetual Motion)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermodynamics (Wiki topic: Thermodynamic laws)

http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/museum/unwork.htm (Unworkable Inventions)

Internet searches of your own choosing: Search words or terms listed here, or make up your own phrases. Click on any results you find interesting. Have fun surfing and researching on the net!

Changing the Period of a Pendulum

Problem: How does a pendulum work?

Materials:

• Weights (Metal washers are perfect for this)
• Stopwatch
• Plastic Straw
• Tape
• Ruler
• Pen & Paper
• Table

Procedure:

• Tie one weight onto the thread.
• Thread the thread through the straw and tape the straw to your table so that about half an inch of the straw hangs over the table’s edge.
• Tape the non-weighted end of the thread to the table so that the length from the end of the straw to the middle of your weight is 4 inches.
• Let the pendulum settle so that it is not moving.
• Pull it to the side about one inch and let it go, gently. If the pendulum bounces or vibrates, allow it to settle and try again. Your goal is to make the pendulum swing in a steady arc.
• As you let it go, start your stopwatch and count the number of times it swings from its starting point to the other side and back until you count 10 swings. Stop your stopwatch. Record both the time it took for the pendulum to complete 10 swings and the length of string. Repeat this three times and average together the data you collect from all three trials. The ratio of swings to time is called the period of your pendulum.
• Adjust the length of the pendulum from 4 inches to 3 inches. Repeat steps 4-6. How do you think the changed length will affect the pendulum’s behaviour? Why?
• Double the length of the pendulum to 6 inches and repeat steps 5 and 6. Do you think the added length will change anything? Why?
• Repeat steps 4-8, but pull the pendulum 3 inches to the side as opposed to 1 inch before letting it go. How do you think this will affect the pendulum’s behaviour? Why?
• Now experiment with increasing the weight of your pendulum’s bob. If you’re using washers, then simply tie a second washer to the end of your string. Repeat steps 4-8 with your larger weight. How do you think using a heavier weight might affect the behaviour of the pendulum? Why?

Results: Only the length of the string has any effect on changing the period of a pendulum. Neither changing how heavy it the bob is nor how far to the side you pull it before letting it swing (unless you pulled it very far to the side) will change the time it takes the pendulum to complete a swing from one side to the other. The pendulum’s period remains constant in both cases. A heavier pendulum bob will help the pendulum swing for longer, however.

Why? These characteristics make the pendulum a great tool for keeping time. An advantage of longer pendulums is that they can swing in smaller arcs while travelling the same distance as shorter pendulums. This helps limit some errors due to pendulum behaviour not perfectly matching the math you need to keep time.

Pendulums behave according to the phenomenon of a restoring force, a force that pushes something back to its central position. Whenever the pendulum isn’t hanging straight down, the tension from the thread pulls it back to this central position.

How hard the thread pulls directly depends on how far away the pendulum is from its centre, which is exactly the type of relationship necessary for a machine to be an oscillator—something that consistently moves back and forth a specific number of times per second.

Heat Capacity of Water vs. Heat Capacity of Oil

Problem: How do different liquids absorb heat?

Materials:

• Water
• Salt water
• Olive oil
• Liquid soap
• Jars (however many liquids you have)
• Hot plate
• Digital thermometer
• Microwave
• Stopwatch
• Labelling tape
• Marker
• Any other liquid you want to test

Preparation: A night before you do your heat testing, measure a ½-cup of liquid into each jar and label it accordingly. You should have 2 jars for each liquid. Set the jars aside so they will all be the same temperature when you test them the next day.

Procedure:

Microwave Testing

• Record the initial temperature of the liquid you are testing. Make sure to record your temperatures in °C.
• Place the jar with your first liquid in the microwave and heat on full power for 30 seconds. Record the temperature and any observations.
• Repeat step 2 several more times, recording the temperature and any observations each time. Be careful, the glass jar will get hot! Ask an adult to help you remove the jar from the microwave.
• Repeat steps 1-3 for your second liquid.

Hot Plate Testing

• Set the hotplate to 80°C.
• Record the initial temperature of the liquid you are testing.
• Place the jar on the hot plate and start the stopwatch.
• Record the temperature of the liquid every 2 minutes for 20 minutes. Record any observations.
• Be careful of the hot glass and liquid!
• Repeat steps 1-5 for your second liquid.

Plot Your Data: Graph each set of data with temperature on the y-axis and time on the x-axis.

Results: Microwaves are better at heating polar liquids, like water. Oils are very non-polar. Olive oil will heat up faster on the hotplate than water will. Water will still heat slower than olive oil when placed in the microwave, but your graphs should have indicated that water heats up faster in the microwave than it does on the hot plate.

Why?: For both the hot plate and the microwave, olive oil will heat up faster than water because the heat capacity of oil is lower than the heat capacity of water. Water requires more energy per gram of liquid to change its temperature. Because the input of the heat from the hotplate and the microwave is the same across trials, and water takes longer to heat up to a given temperature than olive oil, we can conclude the water can hold more heat energy than olive oil.

### CHEMISTRY

Jumping Balls

Materials Required:

• A Glass Jar
• Water
• Naphthalene Balls
• Baking Soda (commonly called as Sodium Bicarbonate)
• Vinegar (commonly called as Acetic Acid)

Procedure:

Step 1: Fill the glass jar with water.

Step 2: Add 2 or 3 spoons of Baking soda and stir the water in the jar till it gets completely dissolved.

Step 3: Now add 5 or 7 spoons of Vinegar to the water and stir it well.

Step 4: Drop 2 or 3 Naphthalene balls inside the jar and wait for the chemical reaction to take place.

For your surprise you can see the naphthalene balls moves up and down for a while.

Theory Behind: Pressure is exerted due to the chemical reaction that takes place inside the jar is the common fact of the experiment. But the movements will takes place for a few minutes only.

Magical balloon blowing using Yeast and Sugar

Aim: To experiment how the out coming gases from yeast shall be used to blow up a big balloon.

Time Required: About 15 to 20 minutes

Explanation: All of us love balloons; it doesn’t have any age restrictions to play with balloons, Right from 1yr old kid to the very old people will always love balloons. The bright colours of balloons will always cause a feeling of well being in all of us. They always make us feel happy and expose our inner kid to the outside world. Yes, of course the hardest part of this enjoyment is to blow the balloons up. Also it would be a very frustrating task, as we try hard to blow the balloons up, but all the air escapes when we try it to tie it. And, by the time we reach the 4th balloon, almost we are out of breath and we would be wishing that, is there any easy way to blow the balloons. Using some sugar, yeast and some hot water we will able to do just that easy way.

Yeast is eukaryotic microorganisms which are classified in the kingdom Fungi. Around 1500 species of yeast were described. Yeast size will vary depending on the species, typically measuring 3-4micro meter in diameter. By the process of fermentation, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae will get converts from carbohydrates to carbon dioxide. For about thousands of years this carbon dioxide has been used in baking. In recent times yeast has been used to generate electricity in micro fuel cells and produce ethanol for the bio-fuel industries.

What’s required?

• 1 Pack of dried yeast
• Measuring spoon
• Hot water
• Packet of Sugar
• Clear plastic bottle
• 2 or more balloons
• Large bowl

Stepwise Procedure:

• Take the clear plastic bottle and pour the packet of dried yeast into it.
• Now add some warm water into the bottle, the addition of water along with the dried yeast should be about ¼ filled.
• Add a teaspoon of sugar into the mixture of water & yeast in the bottle.
• Now swirl the bottle around so that the water, yeast and sugar should mix well.
• Place the balloon over the mouth of the plastic bottle. Remember the balloon should cover the mouth of the bottle completely and there should not be any leaks.
• Now place the bottle with the balloon into a large bowl of hot water.

Study: Now the bottle is placed into a large bowl of hot water. What will happen when the bottle is placed in the hot water bowl? What’s the role of sugar in this mixture of yeast? How does the resultant gas can be used to blow the balloons? This is a similar process which is followed for baking bread. Also we can see the cause for yeast to rise.

Outcome: After the bottle with a balloon is placed into the hot bowl of water, you can observe the balloon to slowly blow itself up. This is because presuming the yeast is viable, not dead, the yeast mixed with warm, not hot, sugar water will consume the sugar and will multiply.

In warm sugar water the yeast will multiply and continue to digest the sugar until it is all consumed and they do this they will give off some waste products outside. These waste products are principally alcohol and carbon dioxide, these two necessities for making beer too.

In this case the out coming carbon dioxide gas has no way to go out other than getting filled up inside a balloon, which results to a blown balloon.

How to change glue into plastic

Introduction: Every student wants to amaze his/her teacher and friends when it comes to school projects. Likewise, this experiment based on the background of chemistry, is bound to spellbound your classmates and as well as your teacher. This project is very simple yet has immense effect if it works out in the right way.

Things needed:

• 1/2 cups water
• 2 paper cups
• 1 tablespoon borax (It is expensive and found in the laundry area of most local supermarkets)
• 1/4 cup white glue
• Plastic spoon
• Bowl of water

How to do: Pour the water into one of the paper cups. Add the borax and stir until most of the crystals dissolve. When this happens, the molecules of borax become suspended in the water.

Pour the white glue into the other paper cup. Then pour in the borax liquid. If you are demonstrating in front of someone, chant some magical words like, ‘Abracadabra sentino’ and stir the glue with the spoon until it becomes a white glob. Use the spoon to press out any bubbles of liquid glue. Transfer the white glob to the bowl of water and squeeze until no more liquid glue oozes out. Then you have it – plastic!

Behind the action: To understand how this trick works, you need to know something about the structure of plastic. Like all matter, it is made up of building blocks called molecules. Molecules of plastic, though, are linked together, forming long chains.

Magic in action: The very first plastics, such as tar, shellac, and tree sap, occurred naturally. In the 1800s, American Wesley Hyatt figured out a way to create a strong plastic out of plant material. This first artificial plastic was called celluloid. Wesley Hyatt used it to produce billiard balls, combs, and other items that were usually made of ivory. The celluloid items were as strong as the ivory ones, but they had a serious fault. If struck, they easily exploded. After a lot of testing, Hyatt discovered that adding camphor from laurel trees to the plastic solved this problem.

A number of years later, American Leo Baekeland, a Belgian chemist found a way to combine two chemicals to make an even more useful plastic. This material would not melt and did not dissolve in most chemicals. It was also very lightweight. Called Bake-lite, it was used to produce many different products such as radios and jewellery. He also invented Velox photographic paper (1893). “Plastic” (from the Greek “plastikos,” meaning mouldable) is the popular term for a variety of synthetic, or man-made, polymers.

Caution: Handle the borax only with a spoon. When you are finished performing the experiment, throw the plastic spoon and paper cups away. Borax can have negative health effects and can lead to death when ingested in large amounts. If your skin comes in contact with borax, wash the area thoroughly. If borax is swallowed, seek medical treatment as soon as possible.

Materials required:

• Blotting paper (pink coloured)
• Common salt or cobalt chloride (easily available in chemist store or get it from your school laboratory)
• Water
• Green coloured paper
• Wire (any kind of wire)

Method/ Preparation:

Dissolve common salt or cobalt chloride in some water to make a saturated solution. Make a flower form out of a pink coloured blotting paper. Cut the blotting paper into petal shaped pieces of varying sizes from small to bigger ones. Arrange them according to size keeping the smallest on the top and the biggest below them, with the help of a wire fix them up so that the wire acts as the stem of the flower. Fix a few green coloured leaves to the stem in order to make it as real as possible. Soak the pink blotting paper in saturated salt solution or cobalt chloride solution. After drying your own weather forecaster is now ready to use.

Working:

The petals of this flower will change colours indicating impending weather. In fine weather the flower will be white with the dry salt crystals, but on a rainy day and damp weather, the flower petals will turn deep pink. If you have used cobalt chloride the flower will turn blue on a wet day.

Precaution:

• If you are using cobalt chloride in making this, then handle it with care (as this is a laboratory chemical), it may cause allergy in some cases so it is better to take the help of some elder.
• To be on the safer side use common salt in place of cobalt chloride.

Reference: http://studyvillage.com/resources/2860-How-make-your-own-weather-indicator.aspx

### MATHEMATICS

How to Check Your Multiplication without Calculator

Here is a simplest method to check your multiplication. You don’t need a calculator, or a Teacher to check it. Sometimes we do the multiplication, but we do not check the answer. For that either we have to depend on the calculator or to the teacher or others. Sometimes we simply leave it as it is on overconfidence.  Sometimes we spend double time for checking it. You can try this handy, Powerful and Flawless method.

Here is a unique way of checking your multiplication.

Any kind of multiplication, don’t leave it unchecked. It takes hardly 2 minutes or less to check it. Try this method.

Suppose we are multiplying

459 X 386

The result is 177174

How you know you math is right, especially during exam time.

Here is a simplest method.

Draw a big X.

Add the digits 4, 5, and 9 , it is 18, but you have to add the digits until it comes to ONE digit number, i.e. 1 + 8 ( in this case) is 9.

Write this 9 in the left side of X.

Similarly add 3, 8, 6 and write on the right side, just opposite to 9. In this case it is 17 i.e. 8.

Now multiply 9 X 8 = 72 again add 7 and 2. It is 9.

Write this 9 on the top of X.

Now add the result i.e. 177174 it is 27 i.e. 2+ 7= 9.

So the multiplication is accurate.

This method is applicable for any type of Multiplication.

Quick maths to test a number’s divisibility

Speed and accuracy are the two important qualities, required to clear competitive exams like Bank PO, Railways, UPSC, etc. To ensure a good ranking in the merit list, one needs to be extremely quick in calculations, so as to attempt as many questions as possible. This article explains how to find out quickly whether a number is divisible by a certain number or not, without using actual division.

To check divisibility, numbers can be grouped into two categories:

• Divisibility by prime numbers
• Divisibility by composite numbers

Divisibility by prime numbers

Divisibility by 2

A number is divisible by 2, if the digit in the unit’s place is an even number.

That is, all even numbers are divisible by 2 and all odd numbers are not divisible by 2. Examples:

• Numbers 4, 12, 234 and 1456 are all divisible by 2, because they are even numbers.
• Numbers 7, 81, 449 and 1025 are odd numbers and hence not divisible by 2.

Divisibility by 3

A number is divisible by 3, if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3.

Examples: To find, if the numbers 234, 625 and 7248 are divisible by 3 or not.

• For 234 – sum of digits = 2+3+4 = 9

Since 9 is divisible by 3, so 234 is divisible by 3

• For 625 – sum of digits = 6+2+5 = 13

Since 13 is not divisible by 3, so 625 is not divisible by 3

• For 7248 – sum of digits = 7+2+4+8 = 21

Since 21 is divisible by 3, so 7248 is divisible by 3.

Divisibility by 5

A number is divisible by 5, if the digit in the unit’s place is 0 or 5. Examples:

• Numbers 35, 270 and 4615 are all divisible by 5, because the digit in the unit’s place is either 0 or 5.
• Numbers 57, 551 and 6554 are not divisible by 5, because the digit in the unit’s place is neither 0 nor 5.

Divisibility by 7

A number is divisible by 7, if the sum of the number formed by the last two digits and twice the number formed by the remaining digits is divisible by 7.

Examples: To find, if numbers 637 and 1423 are divisible by 7 or not.

• For 637 – last two digits = 37 twice the remaining digits = 2 x 6 = 12

Their sum = 37+12 = 49

Since 49 is divisible by 7, therefore, 637 is divisible by 7

• For 1423 – last two digits = 23 twice the remaining digits = 2 x 14 = 28

Their sum = 23+28 = 51

Since 51 is not divisible by 7, therefore, 1423 is not divisible by 7

Divisibility by 11

A number is divisible by 11, if the sum of digits in the even places is equal to the sum of digits in the odd places. If not equal, then the difference in the two sums should be divisible by 11.

Examples: To find, if numbers 1287, 1657 and 91949 are divisible by 11 or not.

• For 1287 – sum of digits in the even places = 2+7 = 9 sum of digits in the odd places = 1+8 = 9

Since the two sums are equal, therefore, the number 1287 is divisible by 11.

• For 1657 – sum of digits in the even places = 6+7 = 13 sum of digits in the odd places = 1+5 = 6

Since the two sums are different, and their difference, 13-6 = 7 is not divisible by 11.

Therefore, 1657 is not divisible by 11

• For 91949 – sum of digits in the even places = 1+4 = 5 sum of digits in the odd places = 9+9+9 = 27

The two sums are unequal, but their difference = 27-5 = 22

Since 22 is divisible by 11, therefore, 91949 is divisible by 11

Divisibility by composite numbers

Divisibility by 4

A number is divisible by 4, if the number formed by the last two digits is divisible by 4.

Examples: To find, if the numbers 124, 2148, 3238 are divisible by 4 or not.

• For 124 – 24 is divisible by 4, hence 124 is divisible by 4
• For 2148 – 48 is divisible by 4, hence 2148 is divisible by 4
• For 3238 – 38 is not divisible by 4, hence 3238 is not divisible by 4

Divisibility by 6

A number is divisible by 6, if it is divisible by both 2 and 3.

Examples: To find if the numbers 246, 1473 and 2256 are divisible by 6 or not.

• For 246 – 246 is divisible by 2, as it is an even number. Sum of digits = 2+4+6 = 12

12 is divisible by 3

Since 246 is divisible by both 2 and 3, therefore, 246 is divisible by 6.

• For 1473 – 1473 is not divisible by 2, since it is an odd number

Since 1473 is not divisible by 2, 1473 is not divisible by 6.

• For 2156 – 2156 is divisible by 2, as it is an even number. Sum of digits = 2+1+5+6 = 14

14 is not divisible by 3

Since 2156 is divisible by 2 but not by 3, therefore, 2156 is not divisible by 6.

Divisibility by 8

A number is divisible by 8, if the number formed by the last 3 digits is divisible by 8. But sometimes, actual division of the 3 digit number may be necessary.

Examples: To find, if the numbers 1864 and 3324 are divisible by 8 or not.

• For 1864 – 864 is divisible by 8, hence, 1864 is divisible by 8
• For 3324 – 324 is not divisible by 8, hence, 3324 is not divisible by 8

Divisibility by 9

A number is divisible by 9, if the sum of the digits is divisible by 9.

Examples: To find, if the numbers 1395 and 2499 are divisible by 9 or not.

• For 1395 – sum of digits = 1+3+9+5 = 18

Since 18 is divisible by 9, therefore, 1395 is divisible by 9

• For 2499 – sum of digits = 2+4+9+9 = 24

Since 24 is not divisible by 9, therefore, 2499 is not divisible by 9

Divisibility by 12

A number is divisible by 12, if it is divisible by both 3 and 4.

Examples: To find, if the numbers 2148 and 2754 are divisible by 12 or not.

• For 2148 – sum of digits = 2+1+4+8 = 15

15 is divisible by 3

Also, 48 which is the number formed by the last two digits of 2148, is divisible by 4

Hence, 2148 is divisible by 4

Since 2148 is divisible by both 3 and 4, therefore, 2148 is divisible by 12

• For 2754 – sum of digits = 2+7+5+4 = 18

18 is divisible by 3

But 54 is not divisible by 4

Therefore, 2754 is not divisible by 12

Divisibility by 15

A number is divisible by 15, if it is divisible by both 3 and 5

Examples: To find, if numbers 1115 and 1725 are divisible by 15 or not.

• For 1115 – sum of digits = 1+1+1+5 = 8

As 8 is not divisible by 3

Therefore, 1115 is not divisible by 15

• For 1725 – sum of digits = 1+7+2+5 = 15, 15 is divisible by 3

Also, 1725 ends with a 5, so it is divisible by 5

Therefore, 1725 is divisible by 15

Maths tricks to do quick calculations

Square Numbers Ending In 5

85 X 85 = 7225

Step I – Multiply the first Digit by the first Digit plus one: 8 X (8 + 1) = 8 X 9 =72.

Step II – Write the number 25 next to the number from the first step: 7225.

Multiply two digit number by 11.

53 X 11= 583

Step I – Add both the digit of the two digit number: 5 + 3 = 8

Step II – Place the result in between both the number: 583

Example –

59 X 11 = 649.

• Step I -: 5 + 9 =14
• Step II -: Carry the 1 when the result is greater than 9: 5 + 1 = 6.

Multiply even number by 5

242 X 5 = 1210

Step I – Divide the even number by 2: 242 / 2= 121.

Step II – Put a 0 at the end of the result: 1210

Multiply between 10 & 19

18 X 17 = 306

Step I – Add the larger number to the right most digit of the other number: 18 + 7 =25.

Step II – Put a 0 at the end of the result of step one: 250

Step III – Multiply the right most digits of both original numbers: 8 X 7 = 56.

Step IV – Add result of step two and three: 250 + 56 = 306.

Divide by 5, 50, 500, etc….

52 / 5 = 10.4

Step I – Multiply the number by the two: 52 X 2 = 104.

Step II – Shift the number from step one by one decimal place in case of 5, by two decimal place in case of 50, by three decimal place in case of 500 and so on: 10.4

### How Light Affects Plant Growth

Purpose: The purpose of this project is to show that different colours of light affect the development of plants.

Hypothesis: Predict that plants will grow better under blue, red and yellow lights than they will under white and green lights.

Background: The relationship between light and plant growth can be demonstrated by exposing leaves to various colours of light. Light supplies the power to carry on photosynthesis, the food-making process in leaves. But the spectrum of light most utilized by a leaf is limited to three distinct colours, red, blue and yellow. For example, leaves appear green because green is the colour most leaves reflect rather than absorb and use.

Independent Variable: Colour of light

Dependent Variable: Plant height

Control Variables: Same size soybean plants, fertilizer, soil, water, potting soil, coloured filters, 35 litre aquarium tank.

Procedures: Plant four soybean plants of the same size in an aquarium containing 5″ of well moistened potting soil. Apply the recommended dosage of fertilizer. Place a coloured filter tent over each plant. One filter should be clear. Use blue, yellow, and red film for the other filters. Place the aquarium in direct sunlight. Keep in the same location during the experiment and water daily. Measure each plant every day and record your findings in a notebook. Be sure to measure from the bottom of the aquarium and not the surface of the potting soil.

Materials: All the materials for this project are available locally. You can obtain a 35 litre aquarium from a pet shop. Stationary stores sell coloured transparency sheets. Most garden supply shops sell soybean seeds, potting soil and plant fertilizer. Be sure to germinate your soybean plants to a height of 4″ before beginning your experiment.

Germination: “The Birth of a Plant”

Research: Germination is when a plant seed starts to sprout. A seed needs oxygen, water, certain temperatures, and energy to germinate.

Purpose: The purpose of my project was to determine which type of seed would germinate the fastest. I would be comparing wheat, sweet corn, field corn, soybeans, peas and sunflowers. I also wanted to test the effect of pre-soaking the seeds compared to starting with dry seeds.

Hypothesis: That the wheat seeds would germinate the fastest due to their size.

Procedure: The experiment was conducted as follows:

• Placed six (6) of each seed type in 50 ml of water to soak for 24 hours
• Prepared twelve (12) petri dishes by cutting circles of blotter paper and placing in bottom of dish
• Soaked the blotter paper in each plated with 3ml of water
• Placed the soaked seeds in six (6) of the plates
• Placed six (6) non soaked seeds in the remaining six (6) plates
• Placed all twelve (12) plates on a tray and placed beside window
• All twelve plates received equal amounts of water, light and temperature
• Made observations of seeds at least two times daily. Recorded all activity observed.

Results: During both of the tests, the results were always the same. The soaked wheat seeds germinated first. They were followed by the soaked field corn, sweet corn, and soy beans in that order. The non-soaked wheat and field corn eventually germinated but not as quickly as the soaked. See following pages for observation records.

Conclusion: In conclusion, my experimentation supported my hypothesis. The wheat seeds were the first to germinate in all trials. The fact that pre-soaking the seeds aids their ability to germinate was supported by the fact that pre-soaked seeds germinated first under constant conditions.

How to make a self watering system for your indoor plants

The Self-watering System for the plants is an easy project for the students to take up for their science exhibition or project. The good thing about this project is that it can also be easily implemented at home. Moreover, if explained properly, the student can inspire many to adopt the method at home while going for a short vacation.

Introduction:

Plants, especially the indoor ones need to be watered daily. However, it may not always be possible when you have to go out of the house for a couple of days and the house is locked. It is definitely a sad sight when you come back home to find your favourite plant all dried up. It is easy to make a self-watering system for your plants. Now you need not worry about the watering of your plants when you are out of your house for a few days. And the best part is that anyone can make it himself at home in a very inexpensive manner.

Materials required:

• Big Plastic Bottles 2 ltrs
• Long String or cotton thread
• Soil and manure
• Pair of scissors
• Sharp object to make a hole in the bottle cap

Procedure:

First of all, cut the plastic bottle you have collected into two parts with the help of the scissors. You may take a 2-liter mineral water bottle or even a big soft drink bottle for the purpose. You can cut the bottle into two parts; make the upper part slightly smaller to ensure proper balancing. But be very careful while cutting the bottles. Take the help of some elders for the purpose. Check that the rim is smooth and even.

For our purpose let us name the upper portion of the bottle as ‘A’ and the lower portion as ‘B’. Now fill the lower portion (B) of the bottle with water. Do not fill it to the rim. Leave enough space at the top.

Now make a hole on the bottle cap with the sharp object. A needle or a nail can be used for the purpose. Take the cotton thread and make it pass through the hole. Now put the cap back at its place i.e. at the mouth of the bottle. Place the upper portion (A) of the bottle upside down on B to check that the thread reaches the water portion appropriately. The thread should also be long enough to be inside A.

After checking the length of the thread, you may take the A and fill it up with soil and earth. Also, you may add a little manure if you wish to. Ensure that the thread remains between the layers of the soil and not just at the bottom of the soil.

This way, the plant in A will receive the water from B through the thread. The soil in A will remain damp as long as it gets the water. The plant will also not get withered. This can go on for 4-5 days.

Conclusion: This device prepared out of easily available materials coupled with your proper explanation is sure to win you many hearts.

### PHYSICS

Material Required: Take two convex lenses-one to be used as objective lens with a focal length of about 50 cm. to 75 cm. and the other to be used as eyepiece with a focal length of about 2.5 cm.

Take two cardboard tubes that fit properly, one inside the other. Shuttle cock packing tubes serve the purpose well (but if you don’t get these tubes, prepare tubes by rolling cardboard then tape them well). These tubes should be able to slip in and out for focusing as the lenses are mounted in them.

Construction: The objective lens should go into the larger of the tubes at one end. The lens can be fixed in position with the help of two cardboard rings on either side glued together to the tube with suitable clay (or feviquick). Fix the eye piece at the outer end of the narrower tube in the same manner with the help of rings glued to the tube.

Working:

When the lenses are fixed well, you can focus the telescope by sliding the tubes until they can focus a distant object. It may be necessary to shorten the narrower tube by cutting it at the end other than of the eye piece.

The magnification will be the product of the focal lengths of eye piece and objective lens i.e. about 20-30 power.

M = F (Eyepiece) x F (Objective lens)

Prepare you own telescope and have fun.

Note: Don’t look directly at the sun through this. It may damage you eyes.

Ice Cube Lifting using a String

Aim: The purpose of this experiment is to lift an ice cube from a jar of water using a String

Explanation: When you make the ice to get in contact with water, then ultimately you are making it to a dynamic equilibrium state. During this stage, the surface molecules of ice will start melting and escapes into the water, and the surface of ice will start capturing the water molecules by freezing.

Pure water will get freeze at 0 degree. Salt water will freeze at even lower temperature which depends upon the de-icing agents. If you want to see the effect of salt with ice, then you should not put salt on ice in a condition where the temperature will never go up to a new freezing point of salt – water mixture. For instance, if you are sprinkling the salt on ice when the temperature is at 0°F then the salt will just coat the ice with a small layer. But on the other hand if you sprinkle the salt on to an ice at 15°F, then the salt will have the tendency to melt the ice from re-freezing. You can use Magnesium chloride to work down to 5°F and Calcium chloride to work down to -20°F.

Things Required:

• Water
• Jar
• String
• Salt
• Ice cubes
• Salt shaker

Time Required: It would take hardly around 10 to 15minutes.

Study: Salt has the tendency to melt the ice, this is because when you add salt to the ice, and it reduces or lowers the freezing point of the water. How it happens? This melting process will occur only if there is a small quantity of water available in the ice. Ice will normally be coated with a very thin film of liquid water, which is all it takes. The string which is on top of the Cube will get adheres to the ice cube. The area where the salt is sprinkled will be melted and refreeze.

Outcome: The ice which is nearby the string will begin to melt due to the salt which is sprinkled on it. The ice will slowly draw the heat from the neighbouring water. The surrounding water will get refreeze around the string. As a result of this the string will get intact with the cube in such a way that when you lift the string the cube will also get lifted.

Pulse rate classification on simple exercises

Aim: To find out the difference between a student’s pulse rate at rest and after an activity, also the same compared with different age levels.

Time required: About an hour and a half

Explanation: Normally a person’s pulse rate will not increase or decrease much when he/she is under rest, but if a person is doing some activity or exercise then his/her pulse rate will increase, which is due to the blood which is pumped by the heart in turn increase the heart beat rate. In addition to that, this pulse rate will not be same for different age category persons. In order to get that information, we were going to do this exercise.

What’s required?

• Group of 5 students from four different classes. Example: 8th,10th & 12th grade students
• Stop watch
• Log Book
• A place which can hold these students for exercises

Stage-By-Stage Activity:

• First, call the 5 young students. Make them to sit comfortably for 10 minutes. At the end of 10 minutes, measure the pulse rate of young students and record this data in the log book. The pulse which you measured now is the Resting Pulse.
• Now ask these 5 young students to do 15 push-ups, 15 sit-ups and a jog for 2 minutes. After which, measure the pulse rate of all the 5 young students and record it down in your log book.
• Repeat the above two steps with the students of other 3 different classes. Don’t forget to note down the pulse rate data’s (i.e. Pulse rate at rest & at exercise).
• Now draw a graph, based on the pulse rate data’s of all four classes.

Study: Based on the graph achieved, we can find out how large the difference between the resting pulse rate and pulse rate after exercise in the same young group of students. Likewise you can find the pulse rate difference of each class. Also you can find out the difference in the oldest group of students. How does these numbers compare to each other? Does one group of students have faster pulse rate than other group? Which group has the good level of pulse rate? You can find the pulse rate difference within the same group itself to identify the weaker once and so on. Also you can think of whether the age difference is influencing a person’s pulse rate in resting and after exercise?

Outcome: After all the exercises and achieved data’s, you can find that the younger group of students will have a fast pulse rate during rest, when compared to the older age students. In addition to that, the younger students will have a similar pulse rate at rest and after exercise. On the other hand the eldest group of students will have a very slow resting pulse rate, and a high pulse rate after exercise. When compared to the Younger students, the elder students will have a big difference in their resting pulse and after exercise pulse.

By this result, you can also see how the age factor affects the pulse rate in an activity. This shall also be applied for any age persons to determine their “ability to do the work” called stamina/energy.

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## Reference/Citation

• Science Fair Project Ideas

https://www.education.com/science-fair/

• Chemistry Projects

https://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/category-269-chemistry-projects

• Maths Projects

https://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/category-271-maths-projects

• Botany Projects

https://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/category-267-botany-projects

• Physics Projects

https://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/category-270-physics-projects

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