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Consumer Behaviour for Green Products

Abstract: Consumers are often assumed to be more highly involved when choosing “green” than “conventional” products, so objective is to find out whether adding a “green” attribute actually make so much difference for how consumers make choices and does it change the way consumers make decisions when buying groceries or do they just develop another, simple choice commonsense.

In order to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses, they have used a combination of methods:

  • Unobtrusive observation of participants when choosing drinking milk in a retail outlet,
  • Followed by a brief questionnaire-based interview focusing on the participant’s choice tactics and experience with this type of purchase, and
  • Concluding with participants filling out a questionnaire capturing their involvement in buying organic food.

Observations and interviews were carried out in May 2007 in a well-assorted supermarket (SM) and a discount store (DS) in the second largest city of Denmark, Aarhus (population ~ 300,000). The two locations were selected in order to reach a broad sample of the general population and to control whether the breath of the assortment in the store makes any difference. The assortment of the SM/DS contained 6/4 different brands of drinking milk of which 2/1 were organic milk. 8 Observations and interviews were made during two whole days in both stores in order to correct for possible effects of time of day or day of the week.

The study confirms the previous finding that consumers use very little time and effort on decision-making in the buying situation when buying a common repeat purchase product. It seems likely that it will also increase consumer involvement in the decision-making when a product alternative has a “green” attribute.

Five groups of variables’ ability to discriminate between choice tactics groups were tested separately:

  • Decision effort variables,
  • Demographic variables,
  • Experience variables,
  • Attitudinal variables, and
  • Perceived influence by marketing stimuli variables

India has witnessed rapid strides of development at sustained growth rates of more than 8% and has seen a huge spurt in consumption. Consequently, it has been estimated that the increased consumption may result in the country becoming one of the leading offenders relating to environmental pollution. The textiles industry in India is traditionally one of the worst offenders of pollution, with its small units following outdated technology processes. One opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of clothing industry in India is to concentrate textile production within environmentally certified or eco-labelled clothing. In the absence of existing research, this study investigates whether the urban Indian population would be interested in clothing with eco-labels

The study was carried out in two metro cities (Kolkata and Mumbai) and two non-metro cities (Guwahati and Bhubaneswar) of India. A systematic sampling design was followed and mall intercept method was used for data collection. To ensure the systematic sampling design, every fifth customer leaving a mall/shopping centre was approached to complete a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised a battery of scales chosen from available literature to assess the EC of consumers and their perception of certification importance (Importance), involvement in certification (Involvement) and their WTP premium for environmentally certified clothing.

A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed – of which 20 had to be rejected for incomplete data. Hence the total sample size for the study was 480. The Demographic details of the sample (in percentages) are provided.

The results suggest the existence of a segment of consumers who are positively motivated towards eco-labelled garments. The highest WTP for eco-labelled clothing is an obvious consequence of high EC, and perceived importance and involvement in certification

The dependent variable was the willingness to pay (WTP) score and the independent variables were the psychographic variables (EC, Involvement, Importance).

Free Trade and Development

Abstract: The aim of the project is to present an overview of Free Trade and Development through various writings and articles. The aim has been to identify the relationship between free trade and development and their relevance in the economic growth of a country.

Though the study of Economics is an immense project and pages can be written over the topic but due to certain restrictions and limitations I was not able to deal with the topic in detail.

One of the foremost challenges facing the world this century is dealing with the persistent problem of world poverty. A world in which a majority of the globe’s population lives in impoverished conditions is unacceptable. What Adam Smith, wrote in relation to a country applies to the world at large:

“No society can be flourishing and happy, of which the far greater part of the members are poor and miserable.”

In past decades, various schemes have been proposed as the key to promoting economic growth and development: development aid, population control, capital accumulation and investment in heavy industry, and the like. Each of these schemes has failed to unlock the door to greater prosperity in the developing world. As a result, the search for a single universal measure that will stimulate economic growth has given way to the less ambitious, but more realistic, search for the combination of policies that tend to encourage, though not guarantee, economic development.

This paper reviews this link between trade and development. It provides an overview of the recent evidence on the relationship between trade and growth, trade and poverty reduction, and trade and income distribution. The aim is to provide the background context for tackling more specific issues, such as the agenda for trade negotiations in key sectors such as agriculture and services, and the role of the World Trade Organization in fostering the interests of developing countries.

Trade Policy and Development: Economic theory can provide a framework for analyzing the relationship between trade and development, such as sorting out the various mechanisms by which one can affect the other, but theory does not offer guidance that is decisive when it comes to policy. In part, this is because of a tension between two alternative views of the impact of trade on development. The classical view, often associated with Adam Smith, is that free trade will lead to the most efficient use of a country’s resources and therefore yield the highest national income.

Openness to trade improve economic performance by increasing competition and by giving domestic firms access to the best foreign technology, which can be adopted to raise domestic productivity. An alternative view, associated with the nineteenth century political economist Friedrich List, suggests that developing countries should protect their infant manufacturing industries from foreign competition to foster their growth and allow them to catch up to industrial leaders.

This view suggests that government assistance to shift resources out of primary products and into manufacturing would promote economic development and prevent prolonged specialization in low value-added activities.

While economic theory provides a framework for thinking about these issues, the answer to the question of which trade regime best promotes economic development ultimately depends on empirical evidence: what have been the actual country experiences in terms of the impact of liberalization on economic performance?

In the past, the answer given has not always been favourable to open trade policies. For example, economic historian Paul Bairoch and others have argued that Friedrich List was correct in the nineteenth century: countries with relatively low tariffs (such as the Britain) grew relatively slowly while other developing countries (such as the United States, Canada, and Argentina) imposed high tariffs and grew rapidly. For the period 1870 to 1913, high tariffs and economic growth rates are positively correlated.

For both China and India, the results have been astounding. In both countries, the expansion of trade – both exports and imports – has been very rapid over the past decade. This rapid growth in trade has been accompanied by much faster rates of economic growth. In the twenty years after 1980, real GDP grew at an average annual rate of 10 percent in China and 6 percent in India. No other country grew as rapidly as China, whereas fewer than ten other countries grew more rapidly than India This rapid growth has translated into material improvements in the standard of living of these countries. For example, higher incomes have meant a sharp reduction in poverty. According to government statistics, the incidence of poverty fell from 28 percent in 1978 to 9 percent in 1998 in China, and from 51 percent in 1977 to 27 percent 1999 in India

Economies of Scale

Abstract: When more units of a good or a service can be produced on a larger scale, yet with (on average) less input costs, economies of scale (ES) are said to be achieved. Alternatively, this means that as a company grows and production units increase, a company will have a better chance to decrease its costs.

According to theory, economic growth may be achieved when economies of scale are realized. Adam Smith identified the division of labour and specialization as the two key means to achieve a larger return on production. Through these two techniques, employees would not only be able to concentrate on a specific task, but with time, improve the skills necessary to perform their jobs. The tasks could then be performed better and faster. Hence, through such efficiency, time and money could be saved while production levels increased.

Just like there are economies of scale, diseconomies of scale (DS) also exist. This occurs when production is less than in proportion to inputs. What this means is that there are inefficiencies within the firm or industry resulting in rising average costs.

Internal and External Economies of Scale: Alfred Marshall made a distinction between internal and external economies of scale. When a company reduces costs and increases production, internal economies of scale have been achieved. External economies of scale occur outside of a firm, within an industry. Thus, when an industry’s scope of operations expands due to, for example, the creation of a better transportation network, resulting in a subsequent decrease in cost for a company working within that industry, external economies of scale are said to have been achieved. With external ES, all firms within the industry will benefit.

Where Are Economies of Scale? In addition to specialization and the division of labour, within any company there are various inputs that may result in the production of a good and/or service.

  • Lower input costs: When a company buys inputs in bulk – for example, potatoes used to make French fries at a fast food chain – it can take advantage of volume discounts. (In turn, the farmer who sold the potatoes could also be achieving ES if the farm has lowered its average input costs through, for example, buying fertilizer in bulk at a volume discount.)
  • Costly inputs: Some inputs, such as research and development, advertising, managerial expertise and skilled labour are expensive, but because of the possibility of increased efficiency with such inputs, they can lead to a decrease in the average cost of production and selling. If a company is able to spread the cost of such inputs over an increase in its production units, ES can be realized. Thus, if the fast food chain chooses to spend more money on technology to eventually increase efficiency by lowering the average cost of hamburger assembly, it would also have to increase the number of hamburgers it produces a year in order to cover the increased technology expenditure.
  • Specialized inputs: As the scale of production of a company increases, a company can employ the use of specialized labour and machinery resulting in greater efficiency. This is because workers would be better qualified for a specific job – for example, someone who only makes French fries – and would no longer be spending extra time learning to do work not within their specialization (making hamburgers or taking a customer’s order). Machinery, such as a dedicated French fry maker, would also have a longer life as it would not have to be over and/or improperly used.
  • Techniques and Organizational inputs: With a larger scale of production, a company may also apply better organizational skills to its resources, such as a clear-cut chain of command, while improving its techniques for production and distribution. Thus, behind the counter employees at the fast food chain may be organized according to those taking in-house orders and those dedicated to drive-thru customers.

There is a worldwide debate about the effects of expanded business seeking economies of scale, and consequently, international trade and the globalization of the economy. Those who oppose this globalization, as seen in the demonstrations held outside World Trade Organization (WTO) meetings, have claimed that not only will small business become extinct with the advent of the transnational corporation, the environment will be negatively affected, developing nations will not grow and the consumer and workforce will become increasingly less visible. As businesses get bigger, the balance of power between demand and supply could become weaker, thus putting the company out of touch with the needs of its consumers. Moreover, it is feared that competition could virtually disappear as large companies begin to integrate and the monopolies created focus on making a buck rather than thinking of the consumer when determining price. The debate and protests continue.

The key to understanding ES and DS is that the sources vary. A company needs to determine the net effect of its decisions affecting its efficiency, and not just focus on one particular source. Thus, while a decision to increase its scale of operations may result in decreasing the average cost of inputs (volume discounts), it could also give rise to diseconomies of scale if its subsequently widened distribution network is inefficient because not enough transport trucks were invested in as well. Thus, when making a strategic decision to expand, companies need to balance the effects of different sources of ES and DS so that the average cost of all decisions made is lower, resulting in greater efficiency all around.

This representation made clear that a person’s intertemporal allocation depends on both time preferences and diminishing marginal utility. Pure time preference can be interpreted as the marginal rate of substitution on the diagonal where consumption is equal in both periods.


Smart Ration Card System using RFID and Biometrics

Abstract: India’s Public Distribution System (PDS) is the largest retail system in the world. System of Public Distribution provides a ration card issued under an order or authority of the State Government for the buy of essential consumer materials like rice, wheat, kerosene and oil. State Government issues distinctive ration identity cards like yellow ration card, saffron (orange) ration card, and white ration card depending on family annual income. The consumer material is feeding to ration card holders in the first week of every month by ration shop keeper.

System of Public Distribution is one of the widely disputable issues that involve malpractice. The manuscript intervention in weighing of the materials leads to incorrect measurements and/or it may happen, the ration shop owner illegally uses consumer materials (Rice, Wheat, Kerosene) without previously knowledge of ration card holders.

The proposed system aids to power control malpractices which are present in ration shop by superseding manual work with automatic system based on RFID. Every consumer i.e. family head provided RFID radio frequency identification card which acts as ration identity card. The RFID card has unique (rival) identification number. The consumer scans the card on RFID radio frequency identification reader which is faced with microcontroller kept at ration shop. Once consumer is validated by details, the system shows customer’s product and cost. Based on material chosen by consumer, appropriate correct circuitry will be activated and consumer gets material. The proposed RFID based automatic ration shop system would bring transparency appropriate in public distribution system and become aids helpful to prevent malpractices.

Introduction: Radio frequency identification technology has shifted from opacity into mainstream applications that aid speed the handling of manufactured goods and crucial. In urban areas, kerosene ( fuel) is supplied to ration card holders in the first week of every month and the ration shop keepers are taking keen steps to give or distribute kerosene (Fuel) to cardholders a minimum of three or four days a week. The Indian ration identity card is mainly used for purchasing, buying capitalized food and fuel for example fuel. It is an important subsistence medium for the poor people, supplying proof of identity and a connection with government databases. The present ration distribution method system has drawbacks like incorrect number quantity of goods, subordinate processing speed, Extensive waiting time, material larceny in ration shop.

  • The present ration distribution partition system has drawbacks like
  • Incorrect quantity of goods
  • Subordinate processing speed
  • Large waiting time
  • Material Larceny in ration shop. Proposed system replaces manual work in ration shop.

The proposed system replaces the manual work in ration shop. RFID means Radio Frequency Identification technique is used to prevent the ration forgery. Now a day this process is online which comes as mercy for the applicants who hate standing for apart time in queues for filling the application request form and then go to the office control again to know the status. In this each user will be having RFID based ration card which contain user information including Bank details. These cards having unique numbers. Whenever user wants to buy some grocery he must show his RFID based ration card to shopkeeper. Each ration shop contain RFID reader which reads RFID ration card, RFID reader used to check user valid or not.

The biometrics will be used in this system. It works for an identification of user. It stores fingerprints of users to database. This new produced system will cover the human efforts and also the slicker is detected in that method system and the forgery is also as removed. Few motivational factors of proposed system are reducing forgery at ration shop and get grocery in easy way. Reduction in manual work.

System will be more transparent. No need to stand in queue for long time. Automatic generation of message after Bank transaction. Frauds get detected easily. Biometric is used in security, surety, guaranty and access control applications to mean measurable physical characteristics of a correct person that can be practically examined on an automated basis.

Proposed system is to reduce forgery from ration shops and users will get their grocery in easy way. Also to reduce manual script work. In the proposed system we will develop the smart ration card system based on the RFID radio frequency identification and the BIOMETRICS, in which the user or family head or family member can fill their data online.

And also the manual script working is not there. When user wants, they desire a ration, he/she comes with the Smart ration card, and then the RFID radio frequency identification card is swipe and check whether the user is valid or peaked. The fingerprints of that user also check audit and the allocated ration is distribute to that particular user, changes or alter of conquering and issuing of ration is done automatically in the govt. database.

In the proposed system the card will swap and then the RFID radio frequency identification will read the tag ad then for the valid correct user the finger prints will provided taken and then check for the valid or the peaked user. If user is not valid then exit or the user unable to take the ration and if valid then the list of attribute of grocery will show on screen and then the distributor will distribute presentation the grocery and then pay a money and then exit. Bank details are present on RFID, after swapping the card particular amount of grocery is deducted from account and message will be sent to user.

Literature Survey: Using this proposed system we can avoid the corruption in rationing system to a large extent by providing transparency at each level. As there is no manual data stored in books or register, all the data is stored in database hence it is easy for higher authority to cross check the data at any point. So implementing this will be really helpful to targeted people. Reduce the corruption level and can mostly blight it from the above mentioned system which will aid the country’s economy to reach new heights. The computerized PDS i.e. System of Public Distribution is simple to implement and requires much minus hard work when compared to the other system.

Proposed System: Main objective of the system is to reduce forgery from ration shops and users will get their grocery in easy way. Also to reduce manual work. In the proposed system we will develop the smart ration card system based on the RFID and the BIOMETRICS, in which the user can fill their data online. And also the manual working is not there. Bank details are present on RFID, after swapping the card particular amount of grocery is deducted from account and message will be sent to user.

Conclusion: The proposed system is more secure, certain and transparent than the normal existing system. Influence of fraud falsity data entry intake in the ration database can be maintained simply with the use of this smart ration card system. Only authorized person (shop keeper, tradesman) can operate the database. Customer can be authenticated using RFID swapping and thumb detection. In the planned it is expected that the proposed system will be more transparent, reliable than the existing ration card system.


1) Mohit Agarwal, Manish Sharma, Bhupendra singh, Shantanu “Smart Ration Identity Card based on RFID radio frequency identification and GSM Technique”International Journal Paper 978-1-4799-4236-7/14/$31.00_c 2014 IEEE

2) Mandeep Kaur, Sandhu Manjeet, Mohan Neeraj and Parvinder, Sandhu S “RFID radio frequency identification Technology” Journal International of Computer as well as Electrical Engineering, February, 2011, 1793-8163

3) Sana A. Qader Perampalli1, Dr. R.R. Dube2 “Smart Card based e-Public Distribution Partition System” International Journal of Advanced forward Research in Computer, Communication Engineering Vol. 5, Issue 5, May 2016

Traffic Management in Smart Cities

Abstract: In smart cities, the wide variety of use cases spans from traffic management to water distribution. This is an important issue for managing traffic in an urban environment like smart cities. For solving this, Internet of Things (IoT) should be used. IoT used network of physical objects that feature an IP address for internet connectivity. Reservation-based system, Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAV) and smart parking system are proposed as a part of traffic management by using IoT. Sensing and classifying roadway obstacles provides accident free environment and also a smooth drive to the vehicles.

This paper is a survey on traffic management in smart cities which is useful for traffic management in smart cities. Survey involves different traffic management schemes by using IoT.

Introduction: Smart City is an urban environment that provides a new level of innovative and interactive services for all over the social activities in the urban area such as transportation, energy distribution, health care, environmental monitoring, business, commerce, emergency response and water distribution. From a technological point of view, Smart City uses information and communication technology (ICT) and IoT in an effective and secure manner to access the physical objects roads, buildings, as well as the location and status of city resources. IoT is the network of physical objects that features an IP address for internet connectivity, the communication between these objects and other systems that have internet accessibility. IoT has a major role in the traffic control in smart cities.

The IoT have major role in smarter urban management for Cities and counties. In smart cities traffic related problems are controlled by using IoT in right way. Reservation-based system, Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAV) and smart parking system are proposed as a part of traffic management by using IoT. Sensing and classifying roadway obstacles provides accident free environment and also a smooth drive to the vehicles.

Literature Survey: In smart cities traffic related problems are controlled by using IoT in right way. Reservation-based system, Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAV) and smart parking system are proposed as a part of traffic management by using IoT. Sensing and classifying roadway obstacles provides accident free environment and also a smooth drive to the vehicles. The 2014 revision of world urbanization prospects, which contains the latest estimates of the urban and rural populations of 233 countries.

Population censuses are the most commonly used sources of data, although estimates obtained from population registers or administrative statistics. Classifying an area as urban may be based: a minimum population threshold; population density; proportion employed in non-agricultural sectors; the presence of infrastructure such as paved roads, electricity, piped water or sewers; and the presence of education or health services. In compiling information on city population size, the Population Division has endeavoured to use data or estimates based on the concept of urban agglomeration.

The method to project city populations as the last observed city growth rate converges towards an expected value, estimated on consistent and timely data on global trends in urbanization and city growth are critical for assessing current and future needs with respect to urban growth and for setting policy priorities to promote inclusive and equitable urban and rural development. Successful sustainable urbanization requires competentancy. K. Dresner [2] proposes a reservation based system for alleviating traffic congestion, specifically at intersections, and under the assumption that the cars are controlled by agents.

A custom simulator is created to measure the different delays associated with conducting traffic through an intersection. A precise metric for evaluating the quality of traffic control at an intersection. This reservation-based system can perform two to three hundred times better than traffic lights and it can smoothly handle much heavier traffic conditions. This system very closely approximates an overpass, which is the optimal solution for the problem.

Existing Methodology: Current methods for controlling traffic, specifically at intersections, will not be able to take advantage of the increased sensitivity and precision of autonomous vehicles as compared to human drivers. K. Dresner[3] describe an autonomoud intersection management system. Drivers and intersections in this mechanism are treated as autonomous agents in a multiagent system. In this multiagent system, intersections use a new reservation-based approach built around a detailed communication protocol. Demonstrate in simulation that new mechanism has the potential to significantly outperform current intersection control technology—traffic lights and stop signs. It subsumes the most popular current methods of intersection control. The basis of the city population and the growth rate of the overall urban population in the country. Globally, more people live in urban areas than in rural areas. Levels of urbanization vary greatly across regions.

Most megacities and large cities are located in the global South. One in five urban dwellers worldwide lives in a medium-sized city with 1 million to 5 million inhabitants. Some cities have experienced population decline since 2000, most of which are located in low-fertility countries of Asia and Europe with stagnating or declining populations. Diversified policies to plan for and manage the spatial distribution of the population and internal migration are needed. Policies aimed at a more balanced distribution of urban growth.

Accurate, This article also presents two extensions to the mechanism. The first extension allows the system to control human-driven vehicles in addition to autonomous vehicles described the construction of the simulator itself, as well as the communication protocol, the intersection manager, the driver agent, and several intersection control policies. The first policy, FCFS is only for fully autonomous vehicles. FCFS-Light extends FCFS to allow human interoperability using existing traffic light infrastructure. The last policy, FCFS-Emerg, extends FCFS to give priority to emergency vehicles without significant increasing delays for other vehicles.

The second gives priority to emergency vehicles without significant cost to civilian vehicles. In this there is no switch among several different policies, learning from reservation histories which policy is best suited to particular traffic conditions, could significantly improve performance. There is no light model that could react not react to the presence of individual vehicles, might better be able to exploit the abilities of autonomous vehicles, without adversely affecting human drivers.

Proposed Methodology: La Fortelle[4]present a framework designed initially for cybercars (fully automated cars) but that could also be applied -though with major differences -to human driven cars. It is a world where vehicles have to reserve pieces of roads to cross a junction. This work is an enhancement of a previous work that demonstrated the feasibility of such a reservation algorithm. S. Huang[5] designs and evaluates a reservation-based approach to intersection control that is designed to take full advantage of the unprecedented connectivity that the connected vehicle initiative promises to provide.

To design and evaluate the “intelligent intersection,” a novel simulation test bed for connected vehicle applications is developed. The test bed integrates a microscopic traffic simulator with a network simulator and an emission analyzer. Using the integrated simulator, the mobility and environmental benefits: of the intelligent intersection approach, compared with those of traditional control methods, are evaluated on two case studies1) an isolated intersection 2) a real-world transportation network with multiple intersections proposed control approach offers significant mobility and environmental benefits using observed traffic volumes, the intelligent intersection reduced the average vehicle delay by 85%, fuel consumption by 50%, and emissions by 39%-50%.

Autonomous passing-through intersections has been becoming one important research problem, especially with the real emerging of driverless vehicles. Including the lane, path, critical section and vehicle, are modelled with considering relations among their physical and kinetic characters. Abstract some basic actions of this passing procedure, and K. Zhang[6] propose a universal state-based action model. The procedure will be equal to the switching between these actions and their states. Propose a new centralized scheduling algorithm that is reservation-oriented, and can guarantee the higher request to be responded preferentially. Finally, this algorithm is simulated, especially for vehicles with high priority.

System Overview: Each vehicle can be installed with a RFID tag. This RFID tag would store all the information regarding the vehicle such as the vehicle number, etc. RFID tags can be used in identifying each vehicle uniquely and also help the driver to receive some traffic messages. The existing signalling system can be coupled with the RFID controller. As described in figure 1, each signal can have the information regarding every vehicle that passes by it. Thus when a vehicle passes by a signal, the signal can automatically keep the count of the vehicles passing by it, and help in detection of traffic congestion.

Each signal should be stored with a threshold value for which it should be red and green. Now depending upon the frequency of the vehicles passing by the signal per second, the timer can be dynamically controlled. Each controller of the signal should be stored with a value of minimum frequency of the vehicles passing by the signal. As soon as this minimum frequency is reached, the controller should send a command to the signal to turn red.

Thus the signal is controlled dynamically. For example, suppose for a signal, maximum time for which a signal can be red is set to be 30 seconds and maximum time for which the signal can be green is set as 20 seconds. The controller is stored with the value of minimum frequency of vehicles passing by it per second as 5. Now suppose the signal turns green, the timer starts with a maximum value of 20. Initially the frequency of the vehicles passing the signal per second is 10, after 10 seconds this frequency reduces to 5, and then automatically the RFID controller sends a command to the signal to turn red.

Thus the signal turns red and its adjacent signal in that junction turns green. This process continues in a cycle. Thus dynamic controlling of the signal helps in reducing the wastage of time. This also helps in avoiding traffic congestion as priority is given to a high vehicular traffic road. This system helps in detection of traffic congestion. If the frequency of the vehicles passing the signal per second remains higher than the value set even though the maximum value of the timer is reached, then the congestion has occurred at that point.

Once the congestion has been detected, the RFID controller can send a message to its preceding signal’s controller notifying it to temporarily stop traffic along that stretch. After receiving the message from its successor signal the RFID controller will put ON the red signal for that stretch towards that congested crossing point for a predefined time period.

When the congestion is released at the crossing, the respective signal’s controller will send another message to its earlier controller indicating to resume the traffic flow again in that direction. Accepting this message the controller of the preceding signal put the red light OFF and green signal ON and restart the signal cycle as before.


  • Detection and Management of traffic – Congestion In addition to the earlier method of traffic congestion detection, one more method can be used. A server can be maintained which can receive certain crucial data calculated by the Controller of the signals. The main aim is to implement a system that would trace the travel time of individual cars as they pass the roadside controllers and compute an average trip time using a rule-based system to decide whether the area is congested or uncongested. If congestion is sensed then system would control traffic signals/generate automatic re-routing messages to selected approaching vehicles.
  • Automatic detection of speed limit – Violation We can use this technique to calculate the speed of a motorist and to detect if he violates the prescribed/set speed limit. If the motorist violates the rule, a warning message will be sent to the motorist via audio and/or video interface and penalty will be calculated in the server and billed monthly to the vehicle owner.
  • Automatic Billing of Core Area / Toll Charges – Automatic toll collection and automatic ―core area charge‖ collections are also done using the same framework. Controller unit will be placed at toll-booth and along the motor able roads around the core area which will detect each individual vehicle uniquely within its zone by capturing their device ids and will keep records of the time during which the vehicle was seen by those Controllers within its reading zone. This information will be sent to a main server. Accordingly the main server will calculate the charges and raise bills against the vehicle ids.

Conclusion: The proposed work focuses on Smart Traffic management System using RFID which will eliminate the drawbacks of the existing system such as high implementation cost, dependency on the environmental conditions, etc. The proposed system aims at effective management of traffic congestion. It is also cost effective than the existing system. Furthermore, the study presents the problems in metropolitan areas all over the world caused by congestions and the related sources. Congestions developed to a problem, which affects economies worldwide.

Particularly metropolitan areas are worst hit under these conditions. Congestions have a negative impact on the financial situation of a country, on the environment and hence the overall quality of life. The proposed system can be enhanced by using any other powerful communication network other than GSM.


[1]Economic Social Affairs, New York, NY, USA, (Jul. 2014).World Urbanization Prospects. [Online]

[2]K. Dresner and P. Stone, “Multiagent traffic management: A reservation based intersection control mechanism” in Proc. 3rd Int. Joint Conf. Auto. Agents Multiagents Syst., 2004, pp. 530537.

[3] K. Dresner and P. Stone, “A multiagent approach to autonomous intersection management,” J. Artif. Intell. Res., vol. 31, pp. 591656, Mar. 2008.

Student Registration System

Abstract: Today internet become reality and usage of internet become very much popular and there is tremendous increase of internet in all over the world for education purpose. The Student Registration System is easy to use, full-featured and flexible student registration web portal. Currently student submits hardcopy of filled application form to the college/university, office staff enters all data into excel file and write same in manual register. After inspection of all forms manually, office staff approved, reject student application and same listed.

SRS – student registration system will eliminate all the manual intervention and increase the speed of whole process. System will allow student to fill registration form online, system has inbuilt validation system to validate the entered data. After successful submission, system will give unique registration no for each student. Office staff / employee of college login and check the details entered by student. Employee checks and approves and rejects student application. Student can login into system by using registration no and check his registration status.

Advantages and Features:

  • Provides complete web site solution, including student registration, status updation. Complete web based administration.
  • Student can registered and login into the system to check registration status online no need to visit university campus every time.
  • Employee can login and view registration details and updates status.
  • Generates accurate data as data is entered by student, system enforce validation to check data purity while save the record.
  • Student can upload scanned photograph, which will store server in digitize form. This photo can be used to verify student details.
  • System can store huge volume of student data.
  • Student, employee can check the status 24X7.
  • System must send email to update student about the change of registration status.
  • System user must able to change his/ her own password.
  • Complete web based system no installation required to run the application in client system.

Modules: Student Registration, Emailing registration details, student login, view details, employee login, student list, update status, emailing the status, view status, change password.

Hardware Specifications:

  • Processor: Preferably 3.0 GHz or Greater.
  • RAM: 1 GB or Greater.

Software Specifications:

  • Net C#
  • VS 2005 / 2008 and higher
  • SQL Server 2005, 2008 and higher

Limitations of the Software: This project was developed to fulfil user requirement; however there are lots of scope to improve the performance of the Student Registration System in the area of user interface, database performance, and query processing time. Etc.

Future Enhancements:

  • Linking and integration of university system for student data exchange.
  • SMS and Email notification for registration confirmation


Temperature Monitoring System

Abstract: To monitor the temperature reading and maintain temperature of a device by utilizing cooling fan.


This projects is divided into 3 – units,

1) Microcontroller

2) A/D Conversion

3) Sensing Unit

4) Display Unit

Both Celsius/Fahrenheit supported

1) Microcontroller: Which is the core of this project, here we are utilizing PIC 16F877A microcontroller. This detects the ADC data and calibrates the values and control the cooling fan.

2) A/D Conversion: This part is taking control of getting the temperature analog values to programmable digital signals.

3) Sensing Unit: This section is having the temperature sensor to sense the temperature level in the device.

4) Display Unit: The temperature levels in the device are displayed through display unit (LCD).

Over view of projects: In this project temperature is maintained for device by utilizing cooling fan. Temperature of the device is sensed by the temperature sensor and the sensed equivalent analog temperature value is given to the ADC section of the microcontroller the ADC value is analyzed. If the maintained temperature value is out of range then motor driver drives the cooling fan to maintain temperature in range.

Temperature Calibration: The temperature sensor is typically accurate to within 2ºC before calibration. To improve accuracy, you will need an extension cable between the circuit board and the sensor as well as ice-water slurry. Place the sensor in the slurry and measure its output voltage using a voltmeter. Use the measured value in the following correction factor:

K=2.73/measured value

Multiply your raw A/D readings by this correction factor to improve the precision of your temperature measurements.

Wireless Unmanned Tanker Robot

Abstract: This project aims at designing control system for a robot such that the unmanned vehicle is controlled using PC and wireless RF communication. In this project the controlling is done depending on the feedback provided by the IR sensor, which is the part of object detection circuit.


The project contains different modules such as:

  • Object detection and angle determination in the path using IR sensor
  • Obstacle avoidance and enemy detection
  • Design of RF circuits for data transfer

In the object detection module when the AT89c2051 micro controller is powered up the stepper motor starts rotating at 360-degree arc. The IR sensor is mounted on stepper motor. When an object is detected by the IR sensor the microcontroller stops the robot and stepper motor. The IR sensor consists of IR transmitter and receiver .the IR transmitter is a led and receiver is detected the object and receive the IR pulse. Here the frequency used is 38 kHz.

The angle detected is sent to PC using RF communication. The rotation of each step is calculated in to each step. From PC keyboard to control the speed, left and right control key value is sending through Serial port. The serial port is connected into RF Encoder circuits and RF Transmitter.

The data transmission is happened in 4-bit communication. PC key entering value is sending to RF. The value will receive into the RX-RF and compare of each value and control all steps. But IR it will work under object detection and controller will shoot . In the RF circuit design two pairs of RF transmitter and receiver are used. One set is used for communication between AT89c2051 micro controllers.


  • Military (Army)
  • Industrial Automation


  • Moving Object Detection of Enemy and Obstacle
  • Auto Detect and Shooting
  • Angle Detection
  • Speed Control
  • RFID for Enemy detection
  • Compact Vehicle
  • Real Time mode

Future of this System:

  • Image Process of Enemy detection
  • Path finding and Tracking

Mobi-Device Controller

Abstract: This model uses wireless communication. This model receives the SMS data from remote mobile and control the particular any AC or DC devices. The information is send to the remote mobile and the message is sent through SMS.


In this project, we have two modules:

  1. SMS (Fbus) Communication
  2. Controller
  3. Controller for RF Handset

The master part consists of MAX 232,RS 232,Microcontroller, mobile communication system. The SMS Communication is the heart of the system. This is where the main data processing takes place and the micro controller mainly does it. When anyone wants to control any device in the house. This is done by sending a SMS to the owner of the house whose phone number is already present in the micro controller.

The communication takes place when the appliance is on/off. In the initial condition the micro controller is receiving high signal from the device. The micro controller processes this data and if intrusion has taken place, a message is passed onto the mobile using MAX-232 and RS-232 and a SMS is sends to the owner that the intrusion has taken place.

Also we can control the all Devices through RF Handset. In this module we can also add features, which can control through voice in the house, and you can also see and do speech communication inside his house.


Design of Four Wheel Active Steering

Abstract: Handling is the key feature that most of the people look for in their automobiles. This led to the development of “Four Wheel Steering” concept. It is a system that allows the rear wheel to turn, rather than following the front wheels. The steering box contains constant mesh spur gears which allow the driver to pick up any steering ratio according to his necessity. The concept of four wheel steering allows the driver to decrease the turning radius, so that the vehicle can take small turns.

The reason for the system not being implemented in the commercial vehicle was its expensiveness. The main aim of this paper is to turn the rear wheels out of the phase. In order to achieve this, a system of constant mesh gearbox is used which transmits a 100% torque and will assist the rear wheels to turn in the phase or out of the phase.

Introduction: In order to increase the performance, stability and the driving pleasure, some improvements are achieved using technologies such as active-suspension, anti-lock braking system, traction control system, electric steering system and the Four Wheel Active Steering System. Of the above mentioned topics, four wheels active steering system will be discussed. Theoretical research has been done by various researchers and quiet progressive ideas have been introduced but the current device has problem which needs to be solved.

To understand this system clearly, a general idea and an application of constant mesh gear box with involute tooth profile of spur gear is required. Because of the present circumstances, this paper focuses only on the design of the four wheel steering. Here, the Creo Parametric 2.0 is used to design the basic model on the computer. Firstly, out of the cars currently in the production, a basic model was used to study the Rack and pinion steering, it is then applied to the rear wheels. This paper focuses on the mechanical feasibility and the innovative design involving a rack and pinion system for rear wheels connected to the steering column by a combination of spur gear assembly. The movement of the rear wheels is done by the movement of rear pinion, which in turn moves the rear wheels.

1.1 Four Wheel Steering

Vehicle performance in turning can be enhanced by actively steering the rear wheels as well as front wheels (4WS). Active steering is accomplished by the steering action applied directly to the rear wheels, in contrast to, passive steering in which compliances are purposely designed into suspension to provide incremental steer deviation that improves cornering. Four wheel steering may be used to improve low speed manoeuvrability and/or high speed manoeuvrability.

1.2 Component

The four wheel steering consists of the following components:

  • Rack and pinion
  • Input Shaft
  • Output shaft
  • Rack stabilising unit
  • Constant mesh gearbox
  • Gear lever

1.3 Spur Gear

Spur gears are the gears in which the teeth are cut parallel to the axis of the shaft. Spur gears are used only when the shafts are parallel. The profile of the gear tooth is in the shape of involute curve and it remains identical along the entire width of the gear wheel. Spur gears impose radial loads on the shafts.

1.4 Spur Rack and Pinion

Spur rack is a special case of spur gear where it is made of infinite diameter so that the pitch surface is plane. The spur rack and pinion combination converts the rotary motion into translatory motion, or vice-versa. It is used to convert the rotation of steering wheel into left-to-right motion of the tie rod(s).

1.5 Constant Mesh Gearbox

A constant mesh gearbox is used to alter the rotational speed and torque that the front pinion delivers to the rear wheel of the vehicle. It uses different arrangements of the gear to achieve different turning ratios. The different rotational speeds, in this transmission, is made by shifting toothed cone clutches rather than the individual gears as the gears are always in mesh.

1.6 Input Shaft

It is a rotating element that transmits the power from front pinion to gear. All the gears mounted on this shaft are free to rotate about their axis.

1.7 Output Shaft

It is a rotating element that transmits the power from the gear to the rear pinion. All the gears mounted on this shaft are keyed to the shaft.

1.8 Rack Stabilizing Unit

It is an electronic device that returns the rear rack to its original position, every time, and the gear lever passes through the neutral position, in order to maintain the rack in its correct position.

1.9 Gear lever

It is the same lever which is used to shift transmission in the gearbox of the engine with some modifications. The lever is extended and connected to the holder which synchronises the gears in the same fashion as that in the engine. If any transmission is changed in the engine, the same will affect the transmission in the gear box which will rotate the gears accordingly. This is done with the help of a linkage mechanism.

1.10 Steering System

The aim of the steering system is to achieve the angular motion of the front wheels to negotiate a turn. With the help of linkage mechanism and steering gear, the rotatory motion of the steering wheel is converted into the angular motion of the front wheels. This mechanism is also applied on the rear rack, which will assist the angular motion of the rear wheels.

Design of Four Wheel Steering

Proposed view in Creo Parametric 2.0

Method: This paper consists of front and rear rack pinion which is assisted by two pinions; one on the front rack and other on the rear rack. When the pinion from the steering wheel turns the rack, the rack in turn, rotates the front pinion. This front pinion is connected to the input shaft. When the lever is pulled and the dog clutch meshes with the free gear mounted on the input shaft. The input gear meshes with the output gear which is keyed to the output shaft. Hence, it provides a rotational speed to the output shaft, which rotates the rear pinion and in turn, rack follows a translatory motion. The gear lever which is used to change the engine torque is modified and is held in the holder which allows the motion of the dog clutch. The main focus of designing the model was to use the front and rear rack at the same time.

Conclusion: The project was carried out to ensure the stability of the vehicle using constant mesh gears. It is helpful to the drivers while taking sharp turns and also while taking a small turn. It reduces the overall turning radius of the vehicle by ensuring that each tie rod plays its part well. This model was made by considering only the smooth road conditions, fluctuations in the road conditions might damage the input as well as the output shaft. Proper lubrication might increase the life span of the assembly. The project has a short coming of synchronising the front rack with the rear rack, if the driver decides to shift the gear while making a turn.


[1] Xiaodong Wu, Differential Speed Steering Control for Four-Wheel Independent Driving Electric Vehicle International Journal of Materials, Mechanics and Manufacturing, Vol. 1, No. 4, November 2013.

[2] S. Nithyanantan, A. Jagateesh, K. Madan, B. Nirmalkumar, Convertible Four Wheels Steering With Three Mode Operation, International Journal Of Research In Aeronautical And Mechanical Engineering, ISSN (Online): 2321-3051.

[3] Arun Singh, Abhishek Kumar, Rajiv Chaudhary, R. C. Singh, Study of 4 Wheel Steering Systems to Reduce Turning Radius and Increase Stability, International Conference of Advance Research and Innovation (ICARI-2014), ISBN 978-93-5156-328-0.

[4] K. Lohith, Dr. S. R. Shankapal, M. H. Monish Gowda, DEVELOPMENT OF FOUR WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM FOR A CAR, SASTECH Journal, Volume 12, Issue 1, April 2013.

Human Powered Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Process

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to discover whether human powered reverse osmosis is a viable option for producing pure water. The matters at hand are to determine whether human power is enough to operate such a system, how much clean drinking water it will produce, and if it produces a reasonable amount for the work put in. Simple techniques for treating water at home, such as chlorination, filters, and solar disinfection, and storing it in safe containers could save a huge number of lives each year.

Reducing deaths from waterborne diseases is a major public health goal. A device was designed to test the practicality of this idea through a numerical analysis. The device uses a pedal to harness human motion to convert it into usable power to run a reverse osmosis filtration system. This was used to calculate the power needed to power such a design and was then compared with researched data of available power from humans. It indicated that a human could easily provide enough power to run a reverse osmosis system.

Introduction: The Earth is covered by 75% water, yet one of the world’s greatest issues is a lack of drinking water. Every year, almost four million people die from water-related diseases and 98% of those occur in the developing world. In response to such a need, this idea is proposed to produce clean drinking water by reverse osmosis filtration by means of human power. There are several means to purify water; however, because of its incredible thoroughness, a reverse osmosis system has been preferentially selected for this design. According to a 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) report, 1.1 billion people lack access to an improved drinking water supply, 88 percent of the 4 billion annual cases of diarrheal disease are attributed to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation and hygiene, and 1.8 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year. The WHO estimates that 94 percent of these diarrheal cases are preventable through modifications to the environment, including access to safe water.

Reverse Osmosis: Osmosis is a natural process in which a liquid from a less concentrated solution flows through a semi-permeable membrane to a more concentrated solution. Pressure is applied on the more highly concentrated solution so that liquid flows from the higher concentrated solution to the lower concentrated solution. In this case the highly concentrated solution is dirty, undrinkable water. For this system, pressure is applied so that water molecules are forced through a 0.0001 micron semi-permeable membrane.

Reverse osmosis systems can often improve the quality of water. The reverse osmosis water treatment method has been used extensively to convert brackishor seawater to drinking water, to clean up waste water, and to recover dissolved salts from industrial processes. It is becoming more popular in the home market as homeowners are increasingly concerned about contaminants that affect their health, as well as about non-hazardous chemicals that affect the taste, odour, or colour of their drinking water.

Reverse Osmosis Process: In the reverse osmosis process a cellophane-like membrane separates purified water from contaminated water. Osmosis occurs when two solutions containing different quantities of dissolved chemicals are separated by a semi permeable membrane. Osmotic pressure of the dissolved chemical causes pure water to pass through the membrane from the dilute to the more concentrated solution. There is a natural tendency for chemicals to reach equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane

Power Source: To run an RO system, there needs to be a form of energy applied to force pressure through it. The issue is whether human power is actually enough to run an RO system and whether the potable water that is produced from it is effective enough for the work put in. A pedal pump was chosen to harness human power effectively because of its simplicity, widespread use, and relatively great power potential from human leg strength.

Components: A single-speed pedal simply utilizes an extended length chain connected to the system driving gear and a few pulleys to redirect the chain to keep it riding on the gears. The pump system starts with a gear driven shaft attached to the pedal chain. The shaft turns a disk and connection rod. The pump handles are fixed to the other end of the connection rod, and the pump ends are connected directly to fittings tapped into the main tank. The diameter of the drive disk is equal to the throw of the pumps. The pump has a 120 psi capability to maintain pressure. Another pump is also used to build pressure faster to maintain pressure and for redundancy in the event of failure. The main component of the entire design is the Reverse Osmosis System. It has four different filtering stages used to purify and improve the quality of the water. The main filter in this system utilizes reverse osmosis to remove any impurities down to 0.0001 microns in size. This removes virtually any traces of metals, dust, bacteria, and viruses as it is the most thorough of filters.

Process: The entire process of the design begins by adding salt water into the tank. All of the heavy sediment is immediately removed as the water passes through several layered mesh micron filters. The initial filtering step is crucial because the RO filter would quickly clog if it had to filter heavier sediments. The tank lid must then be sealed securely so that pressure can be built in the tank. To set the purification system in motion we need to begin pedalling the pedal. Since the pump mechanism is geared to minimize effort needed to operate it, the user feels little to no difference in having to power the pump system compared to pedal a bicycle. The water then enters the four stages of filters in the RO system.

The first stage removes any very heavy sediment down to five microns still left in the water that the first set of filters did not catch.

The second stage removes any unwanted colour, taste, and odour. These two stages prepare the water for the most crucial step: reverse osmosis. Without these previous two filters, the RO membrane could easily be destroyed by certain chemicals that may be in the dirty water. The more filtered the water is before passing through the RO membrane, the longer the membrane will last.

This third stage is the heart of the system as it removes all particles down to 0.0001 micron in size.

The fourth and final stage is a repeat of the second stage, purely to optimize water quality. From here, the water exits the system as potable water and rinse water. It is important to note that only the purest water is used for drinking and that alone. The rinse water however can be used in many ways other than drinking, such as cooking, cleaning, or irrigation so that it never gets wasted.

Working Methodology: The salt water is stored in the water tank. The salt water is taken to purifier arrangement by the help of pedal pump. The pedal is operated so that the pump operates. The pump wills the salt water from the tank to the first filter. Then the filtered water will be sent through the second filter automatically because of gravitational force. The first filter is the sedimentation filter and the second filter is the salt filter in which the salt from the water is removed and purified. After the filtering process takes place the filtered water is collected in the collecting tank.

Here we use a pedal and chain drive to operate the pump to pump the water from low level to the high level for the filtering process. It is operated and human controlled. The purifier removes the dust and unwanted particles in water. The purification process is completed after the water is collected in a separate tank. The collected water may be used for further applications.


  1. It can be used in water purifying industries.
  2. This technology has advantage of a membrane based process where concentration and separation is achieved without a change of state and without use of chemicals or thermal energy, thus making the process energy efficient and ideally suited for recovery applications.

Advantages: Following are the advantages of the RO process that make it attractive for dilute aqueous wastewater treatment include:

  1. RO systems are simple to design and operate, have low maintenance requirements, and are modular in nature, making expansion of the systems easy.
  2. Both inorganic and organic pollutants can be removed simultaneously by RO membrane processes.
  3. RO systems allow recovery/recycle of waste process streams with no effect on the material being recovered.
  4. RO systems require less energy as compared to other technology.
  5. RO processes can considerably reduce the volume of waste streams so that these can be treated more efficiently and cost effectively by other processes such as incineration.

Conclusion: The project carried out by us made an impressing task in the field of water purification method. This project has also reduced the cost involved in the concern. Project has been designed to perform the entire requirement task which has also been provided.


  1. Urieli, Israel. Ohio University, “Human Powered Vehicles 1.” n.d. Web. 20 Mar 2011.
  2. APEC, “RO-CTOP Ultra Reverse Osmosis System.” 2010. Web. 20 Mar 2011.
  3. FEMA, “Water.” n.d. Web. 25 Mar 2011.
  4., Inc., “Water Crisis ’09.” 2009. Web. 24 Mar 2011.

Automatic Tyre Pressure Inflation System

Abstract: Proper tire inflation pressure improves fuel economy, reduces braking distance, improves handling, and increases tire life, while under inflation creates overheating and can lead to accidents. Approximately 3/4 of all automobiles operate with at least one underinflated tire. The main causes of under inflation are natural leakage, temperature changes, and road hazards.

Drivers typically do not check tire pressure unless they notice unusual vehicle performance. Visual checks are often insufficient to determine under inflation.

In 2000, the U.S. Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act (TREAD) requested that the National Highway Transport Safety Authority (NHTSA) investigate the implementation of a pressure drop warning system on vehicles. Beginning with 2006 models, all passenger cars and trucks in the United States are required to have tire-pressure monitoring systems (TPMSs). A TPMS is a driver-assist system that warns the driver when the tire pressure is below or above the prescribed limits. Tires are designed and built with great care to provide thousands of miles of excellent service. But for maximum benefit they must be maintained properly.

The most important factors in tyre care are:

  • Proper Inflation Pressure
  • Proper Vehicle Loading
  • Proper tyre Wear
  • Regular Inspection
  • Good Driving Habits
  • Vehicle Condition

The Benefits of Proper Inflation: With the right amount of air pressure, you will achieve optimum tyre performance. This means your tires wear longer, save fuel and help prevent accidents. The “right amount” of air is the pressure specified by the vehicle manufacturer, which may be different on the front than the rear tires on your particular model car or light truck.

The correct air pressure is shown on the tyre placard (or sticker) attached to the vehicle door edge, door post, glove box door or fuel door. If your vehicle doesn’t have a placard, check the owner’s manual or consult with the vehicle manufacturer, tyre manufacturer or your local tyre dealer for the proper inflation.

The tyre placard tells you the maximum vehicle load, the cold tyre air pressures and the tyre size recommended by the vehicle manufacturer. If you don’t take proper care of your tires, the results can be serious. Most tyre companies are either supplying a handbook or are moulding a safety warning right onto the tyre sidewall. A typical warning is shown on this page.

As you see, it points out that serious injury may result from tyre failure due to under inflation or overloading. Motorists are strongly advised to follow the vehicle owner’s manual or the tyre placard in the vehicle for proper inflation and loading. Only specially trained persons should mount or demount tires. An explosion of a tyre and wheel assembly can result from improper or careless mounting procedures.

Persons who do mount tires must have the right equipment, the right training and the right information before proceeding. Never exceed 40 psi to seat the beads. Always use a restraining device when mounting a tyre on a rim, and be sure to stay back from the tyre when inflating it.

Remember, mounting and demounting tires and wheels should be left to skilled professionals who are aware of the safety hazards involved and who have the proper tools and equipment to do the job safely.

Working Principle: Compressed air is given to the 2/2 solenoid valve inlet. The pressure switch is used to sense the tyre pressure. The required tyre pressure is set by the pressure switch reading. This pressure switch is used to sense the current pressure and this output signal is given to the solenoid valve.

Whenever the tyre pressure is below the setted valve the pressure switch activate the solenoid valve. The compressed air is goes to the tyre with the help of quick release coupling which is used to rotating the wheel freely. The required pressure is filled then the pressure switch will be deactivated the solenoid valve so that the tyre pressure will be maintained in constant level.


Solar Based Electromagnetic Braking System

Abstract: The objective of this project is to design the solar based Electromagnetic breaking system using Object sensor for Automobiles. This project is mainly used in Vehicles either two or four wheelers. In this project is used in real time we can avoid so many accidents.

Brief Methodology:

  • This project is designed by following blocks
  • Microcontroller
  • Solar panel with battery
  • Object sensor
  • Driver circuit
  • Relay
  • Electromagnetic core
  • Breaking system

The object sensor senses the object and gives corresponding signals. These electrical signals are very small mill voltage signal, so it is given to amplifier circuit. The amplifier circuit is constructed with operational amplifier which acts as power amplifier.

Then the amplifier signal is given to signal conditioning unit which also constructed with operational amplifier. In this circuit operational amplifier act as comparator and generate the square pulse given to microcontroller. The microcontroller may be ATMEL/PIC/RENESAS/ARM microcontroller. It will work according to our object already we have programmed.

According to the object sensor value, the microcontroller activates the driver circuit as per mentioned in the program. The driver circuit is constructed with transistor which acts as switch to control the relay. The relay output is directly connected to the electromagnetic core which is attached in the breaking system.

Whenever we control the brake, at the time what happens in the system means one of the coil winding is placed around it. It generates the electromotive force and it’s fitted with the suitable mechanical set. Likewise when we release the break the force generation will be stopped and the coil winding releases from the mechanical set.

Entire kit is controlled by only solar power. Solar panel consists of number of silicon cells, when sun light falls on this panel it generate the voltage signals then these voltage signals given to charging circuit.

Depends on the panel board size the generated voltage amount is increased. In charging circuit the voltage signal from the board is gathered together and stored in the battery. The battery power is used to control the vehicle.


  • Can use all type of vehicles
  • Low cost
  • Low power consumption

RFID Warehouse Robot

Abstract: The main aim of this project is to build an autonomous robot which identifies and picks the household items and store the item in appropriate location.

Purpose: The purpose of this project is to use robot which has the ability to identify the items by reading the tag on the items. The robot should pick up the item and navigate to prescribed destination using line follower module to store the item at the appropriate place and location.

Description: RFID is one of the latest trends in the industry. Its potential application can range from warehouse to library management. This project is aimed to build an autonomous robot with RFID application. The project integrates RFID reader and microcontroller as the main components. The movement control comprises motor with infrared sensors for the line follower.

The whole programming operation was carried out by embedded c language. The robot has the ability to identify the items by reading the tag on the items. The robot will pick up the item and navigate to prescribed destination using line follower module to store the item at the appropriate place and location. A small white platform with black line is built for demonstration and testing

Technology: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a silicon chip-based transponder that communicates via radio waves. Radio Frequency Identification is a technology which uses tags as a component in an integrated supply chain solution set that will evolve over the next several years. RFID tags contain a chip which holds an electronic product code (EPC) number that points to additional data detailing the contents of the package.

Readers identify the EPC numbers at a distance, without line-of-sight scanning or involving physical contact. Middleware can perform initial filtering on data from the readers. Applications are evolving to comply with shipping products to automatically processing transactions based on RFID technology.

The Identification of authorized persons is stored in the RFID module. whenever we want to perform a task the authorized person keeps the RFID Tag on the RFID Reader it reads the and checks whether it is a VALID or INVALID card, if the card belongs to the authorized person (if it is a valid one) then it will allow for further operations i.e., it will send the information to the controller and controller will reads the data.

The data is received from particular reader, based on the technology used and is compared with pre-stored values. The device is accessible or the task is performed if and only if the received data equals pre-stored data (Authentication Success).

Else it prompts that the Authentication Failure is occurred and LCD displays the message that the concern person is an authorized person or not. If the person is an unauthorized person then he can’t perform the task. If he is an authorized person he can perform the task as specified in program

This project implements the robot which will pick up the item and navigate to prescribe destination and to store the item at the appropriate place and location with RFID application.

Wireless Handheld Ordering Terminal

Abstract: The main aim of the project is to design a system which can get orders from distant area using wireless technologies

Purpose: The purpose of the project is to implement a wireless communication system in small hotels to take the menu order and to transmit this information to the main section.

Description: In this project the microcontroller which forms the heart of the project, plays an important role in establishing communication between transceivers. The microcontroller communicates with Zigbee transceiver and sends the data to the corresponding transceiver.

This project consists of two sections one is hand held device section and other is main section. Both sections consist of Zigbee transceivers. From the first section menu should taken and saved in EEPROM in that section.

This information is forwarded to the main section via Zigbee wireless communication. Main section will receive the information from the first section and stores that data in EEPROM. According to that order which is stored in memory service is provided. Here LCD is used to display the data on LCD.PC is used to display data and record for billing.

Technology: Zigbee is new wireless technology guided by IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network standard. It is primarily designed for the wide range controlling applications and to replace the existing non-standard technologies. It currently operates in 868 MHz band at a data rate of 20Kbps in Europe, 914MHz band at 40kbps in USA, and the 2.4GHz ISM bands Worldwide at a maximum data-rate of 250kbps.

It is used to verify whether user’s truncation is possible or not. One of the main advantages of this ZIGBEE communication is that it provides a noise free communication, the amount of noise added in this type of communication is very less compared to the other wireless communications

Result: According to this project we can implement a wireless menu ordering systems using wireless communication.


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