Nanobodies – A potential Therapeutics
Ms. Megha Chaturvedi.
Assistant professor (Faculty of science)
Department of Biotechnology
Kalinga University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
Nanobodies have been widely used in the field of research, diagnosis, and therapy ever since their discovery. These Camelid heavy-chain antibody-derived antigen-binding fragments have remarkable characteristics in terms of (small) size, stability, solubility, and specificity, enabling cost-effective synthesis and occasionally outperforming monoclonal antibodies. In general, monoclonal antibodies are well tolerated, as they are substantial proteins (typically 150-200,000 Daltons in size). In contrast to other monoclonal antibodies, nanobodies are made up of a single heavy-chain variable domain that can bind its antigen just as strongly as a regular antibody, produced from a camelid IgG variation. A long-lasting, ready-to-use solution for nanobodies is conceivable. Moreover, nanobodies are relatively simple to make in bacterial, yeast, or mammalian cells, allowing for high-volume manufacture at affordable prices. Furthermore, nanobodies are easily used as building blocks for multi-domain constructions, and recombinant synthesis in microorganisms is particularly cost-effective (Muyldermans S. 2013). As ligand-receptor inhibitors and carriers of medications or medication-loaded nanoparticles for tumor delivery, nanobodies have significant therapeutic potential. Preclinical cancer cell line models are used in a variety of experimental contexts, such as cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, angiogenesis-like features, or disruption of certain signaling pathways, to forecast the therapeutic efficacy of nanobody therapeutics. Their small size is helpful for deeper and homogenous tumor penetration but detrimental for in vivo half-life (few hours). In order to enable binding to serum albumin (66 kDa), nanobodies are frequently coupled to an anti-albumin nanobody. However, more in vivo and clinical research is eagerly anticipated to improve in the future.
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