Oral Cancer Diagnosis Methods
Department of Bioinformatics, Kalinga
University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
cancer is a type of cancer that affects the tissues in the mouth. It is caused
by the abnormal growth of cells in the lips, gums, tongue, throat or other
parts of the mouth. These tumours can grow in size quickly and spread to other
parts of the body if not caught and treated in time. While oral cancer can
affect anyone, certain factors can put a person at higher risk. Age, sex,
lifestyle habits, and environment can all contribute to a person’s risk for
oral cancer. The most vulnerable population for this type of cancer is those
over 40, with men twice as likely as women to get it. Additionally, those who
smoke or use tobacco products, consume large amounts of alcohol or have a
family history of oral cancer are more likely to develop this disease. Finally,
those who spend long periods in the sun without protection may be more likely to
get oral cancer.
on, oral cancer may go unnoticed, as symptoms can be hard to detect. As the
cancer progresses, however, some common signs and symptoms may indicate its
presence. These include persistent sores or lumps in the mouth or on the lips,
white or red patches inside the mouth, difficulty chewing or swallowing, speech
changes, and pain or tenderness around the affected area. If any of these
symptoms persist for over two weeks and are not relieved by over-the-counter medications,
seek a medical evaluation. (1)
a diagnosis of oral cancer is suspected, the doctor will take a complete
medical history and examine the mouth, throat, and neck for abnormalities.
Usually, a biopsy of the affected area will be taken, and the tissue sample
will be sent to a lab for analysis. Blood tests may also be conducted to look
for signs of cancer. Imaging tests like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs may also
identify tumours or abnormal cell growth. Treatment, The treatment of oral cancer
typically depends on the cancer stage and a person’s overall health. Surgery is
usually the first line of defence for smaller tumours. This is followed by
chemotherapy and radiation therapy to eliminate any remaining cancer cells.
modified or reconstructive surgery may be needed to restore function and
appearance to the affected area. It is important to remember that every case of
oral cancer is unique, and the treatment should be tailored accordingly.
Prevention: Since oral cancer is highly preventable, taking appropriate
precautions to reduce risk is essential. These include avoiding activities such
as smoking or using any tobacco product, heavily reducing alcohol consumption,
and using protection when exposed to the sun. Additionally, regular dental
check-ups can help spot any early signs of oral cancer before it progresses too
far. Oral cancer can be severe and potentially life-threatening if not treated
promptly. Unfortunately, it is often easier to detect once it has reached a
more advanced stage. The best way to reduce one’s risk of developing this type
of cancer is to avoid activities that can contribute to its development and to
have regular check-ups with a dental professional. With early detection and
appropriate treatment, oral cancer is highly treatable and can be managed
without life-threatening consequences. Oral cancer is a life-threatening
condition, and early diagnosis could save lives. Unfortunately, many people are
not aware of the signs and symptoms of oral cancer because the situation is not
well known. Early detection can mean a much more successful treatment, so it is
essential to be aware of how to identify potential signs of the condition. The
following article will provide information on diagnosing oral cancer, discussing
the various tools and methods used and how to spot warning signs. Detecting
oral cancer early can be accomplished in a few different ways.
on the exact type of oral cancer being looked for, a professional may utilize a
physical exam, biopsy, or imaging test. During a physical examination, a
professional will examine the mouth, face, and neck area for any signs of
cancer-related lesions. They may also check the tongue, throat, and palate for
anything abnormal. If a site is found, the professional may take a sample of
the affected tissue and submit it for further testing. Biopsy testing is
commonly used to diagnose oral cancer, as it involves taking a piece of the
affected tissue. This sample is then analyzed in a laboratory to assess if the
cells are cancerous. The type of biopsy also varies depending on the suspected
type of oral cancer, as some classes require a deeper examination of the
tissue. Imaging tests, such as X-rays and CT scans, can also be used in
diagnosis. X-rays can be used to identify any areas of abnormality, which can
then be further investigated to determine the exact type of cancer. CT scans
use radiation to produce detailed images of the area affected, which can help a
professional establish a diagnosis. In addition to the methods discussed above,
there are sure warning signs to look for. These include any lumps or sores that
do not heal, along with a range of other, more subtle symptoms such as numbness
or hoarseness of the voice, difficulty with chewing or swallowing, chronic
throat irritation, ear pain, and unexplained weight loss. If any warning signs
are present, visiting the doctor as soon as possible is essential (2,3).
diagnosis of oral cancer is an essential part of treatment. Early diagnosis
will increase the chances of a successful outcome, as treatment can begin
promptly. A combination of physical examination, biopsy, imaging tests, and
awareness of warning signs can help diagnose this condition correctly. By
familiarizing oneself with the above, the chances of detecting any signs of
oral cancer can be significantly improved.
American Cancer Society. (2020). Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer.
Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancer.html.
American Dental Association. (2020). Oral Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/o/oral-cancer
Cancer Institute. (2020). Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Treatment
(PDQ®)–Patient Version. Retrieved from
Kalinga Plus is an initiative by Kalinga University, Raipur. The main objective of this to disseminate knowledge and guide students & working professionals.
This platform will guide pre – post university level students.
Pre University Level – IX –XII grade students when they decide streams and choose their career
Post University level – when A student joins corporate & needs to handle the workplace challenges effectively.
We are hopeful that you will find lot of knowledgeable & interesting information here.