A Critical Account on Green Energy Transition in World Scenario aimed at
achieving Net Zero Emission.docx (D153882718)

Submitted by – Shivangi Tripathi

A Critical Account on Green Energy Transition in World Scenario aimed at achieving Net Zero Emission
Introduction The transition to green energy is a transformation of the global energy sector away from fossil-based
systems of energy production and consumption and toward renewable energy sources. The transition from
nonrenewable energy sources such as oil, natural gas, and coal to renewable energy is made feasible by technological
advancements as well as a cultural drive toward sustainability. The energy transition, which is being driven by
fundamental, long-term shifts in energy supply, demand, and pricing, also aims to reduce energy-related greenhouse gas
emissions by implementing a number of different types of decarbonization. Decarbonization of the energy sector
requires rapid worldwide commitment, and while a global energy transition is begun, additional action is required to limit
carbon emissions and mitigate the effects of climate change. Renewable energy and efforts to improve energy efficiency
have the potential to produce up to 90 percent of the required carbon reductions. The energy transition is a pathway
toward changing the global energy economy from one that is dependent on fossil fuels to one that produces no carbon
emissions by the second half of this century. If successful, this transformation has the potential to limit global warming to
1.5 degrees Celsius. At its core is the pressing requirement, in order to contain the effects of climate change, to cut CO2
emissions that are caused by the use of energy as much as possible. The International Energy Agency The International
Energy Agency projects that the global capacity to generate power from renewable sources will increase by fifty percent
over the course of the next decade, from 2019 to 2024. As a direct response to this new information, utility companies
have launched a quick transition away from coal-based electricity. Even while there are market analysts who foresee a
more gradual change, there is growing pressure on power providers to sell off existing assets that are dependent on coal
supply and invest instead in alternate forms of electricity generation. As concerns about the effects of climate change
continue to mount, a number of the world’s largest oil companies are boosting their financial commitments to
alternative energy sources that produce less carbon dioxide and diversifying their product lines. The International Energy
Agency (IEA) suggests implementing the following significant methods in order to obtain net zero emissions by the year

1. Renewable energy If we want to minimise emissions from the power sector, which is now the industry that produces
the most carbon dioxide, then the use of technologies that are dependent on renewable energy sources, such as solar
and wind, is an absolute must (CO2).
2. Energy conservation Buildings, automobiles, household appliances, and industrial operations may now all be outfitted
with a wide selection of energy-saving options to choose from. These solutions have the potential to be swiftly scaled
up, which will ultimately result in the development of a considerable number of new job opportunities.
3. Electrification As the process of generating electricity becomes more environmentally friendly, the electrification of
industries that have traditionally relied heavily on fossil fuels emerges as a crucial strategy for reducing emissions across
the entire economy. This is made possible through the utilisation of many forms of technology, including electric
vehicles, buses, and trucks on the roads, heat pumps in buildings, and electric steel furnaces.
4. Bio-energy The replacement of natural gas with bio-methane as a source of heating and power is one of the many
ways that sustainable bio-energy can help cut down on greenhouse gas emissions. Other ways include the use of lowemission fuels for aircraft, ships, and other forms of transportation; in addition, bio-methane can be used in place of
natural gas to generate electricity. Additionally, the provision of clean cooking solutions to the 2.6 billion people who do
not currently have access to them is another essential use for sustainable bioenergy.
5. Hydrogen and hydrogen-derived fuels It will be necessary to use hydrogen and fuels based on hydrogen to fill in the
gaps left by the inability of electricity to simply or economically replace fossil fuels and by the inability of limited
sustainable bio-energy sources to meet demand. This includes the use of fuels that are based on hydrogen for ships and
airplanes, as well as the use of hydrogen in heavy industries such as the chemical and steel sectors.
6. Change in global behaviour To reach the goal of having zero emissions by the year 2050, residents’ continual support
and participation is required. Adjustments in behaviour, particularly in developed economies, such as substituting
automobile journeys with walking, cycling, or public transportation, or postponing a long-haul travel, account for
approximately 4% of the total emission reductions that our strategy achieves. Adjustments in behaviour can also include
reducing the amount of food that is wasted.
The International Renewable Energy Agency In order to facilitate the energy transition, many types of technology,
including information technology and smart technology, as well as legal frameworks and market instruments, will each
play a role. IRENA has conducted research on potential pathways to decarbonization, and the organisation is now ready
to assist in and hasten the process of energy transition by providing its Member countries with the necessary information,
tools, and assistance as those nations work to increase the amount of renewable energy that is used in their respective
power sectors. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) bases its work on the energy transition on these
three pillars: 1. The transition of the power sectors of the member states away from their reliance on fossil fuels and
toward those that are powered by green energy. 2. Energy data and system models will be made available to member
nations in order to assist them in achieving their goal of reaching net zero emissions by the year 2050. 3. The provision of
assistance in the form of energy planning to each and every member nation There are 166 countries that are
participating as members of this organisation at the moment. According to the findings of the study conducted by
IRENA, more than ninety percent of the potential pathways leading to a favourable outcome in 2050 involve the
utilisation of renewable energy in some form, whether it be system is currently undergoing a transformation due to the implementation of novel ideas. Nevertheless, in order to
achieve the requisite deployment levels at a rate that is consistent with 1.5 degrees Celsius, particular policies and actions
will be required. Conclusion Within the realm of energy transition, global regulatory structures have been exhibiting a
high degree of inconsistency. Authorities in Europe have taken the lead in advocating for a study of how to reach a
carbon-neutral economy by setting the EU’s net-zero greenhouse gas emissions target for the year 2050. This target was
set in order to meet the requirements of the Paris Agreement. Quite a few of the EU member states have been very loud
about their ambitions in the fields of energy and electrification, making public announcements on these objectives.
Emerging economies, driven mostly by China, are looking for ways to increase energy availability and maintain prosperity
while simultaneously transitioning to greener energy sources. These efforts are similar to those made by developed
nations. There is a growing political movement in the United States that favours a cleaner energy economy and power
generation that produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions. However, compliance with these promises has been
inconsistent throughout the over 200 countries that have committed to limiting global warming by drastically reducing
their emissions of greenhouse gases. Regulation and commitment have been unevenly distributed across the global
economy, with some countries continuing to increase emissions despite pledges of greater decarbonization. One
example of this is the United States, which has continued to increase emissions even as other countries have pledged to
reduce them.

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