Migration is synonym of mobility which covers all kinds of territorial movements of whatever distance, duration or degree of permanence. The term migration refers to the shifting of population from one place to another. The study describes the factors answerable for migration. In rural areas, due to less employment opportunities, low wages, social factors etc. people migrate to urban areas to get more employment opportunities, higher income, better wages, and better facilities. A huge number of migrants live in metropolitan areas and create problems as slums and squatter areas with inadequate public services that endanger safety, environmental pollution, traffic and other urban problems. The factor that induces or regulates migration varies considerably from region to region and even from person to person. There are two type of factors responsible for the process of migration called push and pull factors. A study reveals that the reason people migrate is due to marriage, education and jobs but here we will study about migration due to household, after birth and business as well. We will study about the internal migration from one state to other states and also know the impact of migration on society with the help of census data 2001 and 2011.
Urbanization was a significant cause of domestic migration. Urbanization rates affect disparities between the rural and urban incomes. Rising labor demand in urban areas will draw higher wages and increase migration. The pull factor for better job opportunities, higher wages and more jobs, medical and educational opportunities draw rural people to migrate to cities. The pull factors of no job services, higher wages, declining salaries, crime, less medical care and education push people to migrate to cities.
The pull factors of no facilities for jobs, low incomes, reduced income, poverty, less medical and education force people to move to towns.
Marriage is a very important aspect of migration in society. Every girl immigrates to the place of residence of her in-laws. Therefore most of Indian female population will travel over a short or long distance.
In rural areas we can see people migrate from one place to another place due to lack of educational facilities. Many of them settle down in the urban areas for getting better livelihood after completing their education.
Large percentage of people have migrated from Jammu and Kashmir and Assam due to political disturbances. Citizens also relocate on a short-term basis in search of better leisure opportunities, health care services, etc.
There are two main factors pull and push, responsible for migration. The driving factors are poverty, lack of work opportunities, unemployment and underdevelopment, poor economic conditions, lack of opportunities, exhaustion of natural resources and natural disasters, scarcity of cultivated land , low agriculture productivity ,etc. Pull factors attract migrants to destination areas such as employment and higher education opportunities, higher wages opportunities, better work conditions. Millions of people have migrated from their remote village towards metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai or Delhi. The severe living conditions such as slums, lack of water, lack of sanitation, overcrowding with the resulting increase in crime, women’s insecurities, sexual abuse and exposure to frequent epidemics and AIDs are the immediate outcome of this population shift.
MIGRATION FROM SELECTED STATES
Migration to, from selected states 2011
Migration from other states
Source: Census of India, 2011
Marriage and jobs are the main reasons for migration, according to Census data. Bulk of migration takes place within individual states— only 11.91 percent (5,43 crore) of the total number of persons registered as “migrants” in the 2011 Census had migrated from one state to another, while almost 39,57 crores had migrated within their states. Statistics on migration to and from some major states are shown in the above table.
REASON FOR MIGRATION
Reason for migration
Number of migration 2001
Number of migration 2011
Move after birth
Move with households
Source:- Census of India
Out of approximately 98 million, a total of 32,896,986 million males and 65,404,356 million females were migrated in 2001. There are various explanations for migration, as per the details obtained in the 2001 Census for migration to last residence. Many female migrants have referred to’ marriage’ as the reason for migration, particularly when migration is within the state. The total number of individuals married in 2001 was 43,100,911 million, male 679,852 million and female 42,421,059 million. For males,’ work ‘ and’ school’ are the key reasons for migration. For employment in 2001, total person 14,446,224 million, male 12,373,333 million and female 2,072,891 million migrated and for education in 2001 total person 2,915,189 million, male 2,038,675 million and female 876,514 million migrated. Whereas in 2011 there were a total of 453,641,955 million, a total of 140,962,280 million males and a total of 312,679,675 million females migrated. There are various reasons for migration based on the information obtained in the 2011 Last Residence Migration Census. Many female migrants referred to’ marriage’ as the reason for migration, especially if migration is inside the state. For marriage in 2011 total individual 223,882,710 million, male 6,017,923 million and female 217,864,787 million have been migrated. For males, ‘work’ and’ school’ are the key reasons for migration. For employment in 2001 total person 46,383,766 million, male 38,999,861 million and female 7,383,905 million migrated and for education in 2001 total person 8,009,653 million, male 4,776,882 million and female 3,232,771 million migrated.
Migration is the process where people move from one place to another. The male migration in India is due to job and education purpose. The female usually migrates due to several other reasons like after marriage or family transfer. More people migrate to urban areas because the small land holding, low-income, low living standard, less agricultural productivity when compared then urban areas where diversification of economy is there provides a lot of job opportunities. But overloading population creates many environmental problems such as land, water, and air pollution, over utilization of resources. So, there is a requirement to provide employment facilities in rural areas to reduce the rural to urban migration and to prevent to move to cities. All basic amenities like water, health facilities, and job opportunities should be developed by the government in rural areas. The suggestion of this article is to provide some other opportunities to undeveloped areas like increasing financial and banking facility, focusing on national development plans, minimum social security, sustainable livelihood opportunities, food security programs, etc. The government and politicians of India should take appropriate steps to reduce migration.
Dr. Namrata Shrivastava
Asst. Professor – Department of Economics
Kalinga University, Raipur (C.G.)
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